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Encyclopaedia Judaica

Racist Zionist organization in Rumania (Romania)

Early racist Jewish settlements in Palestine by Romanian Jews - Rothschild's help for survival of the racist Jewish settlements - racist Zionist organizations and congresses - racist Zionist Jewish nationality, citizenship, and political parties, land purchase and press - legal and underground racist Zionism in WWII - emigration to Palestine from Romanian harbors - liquidated racist Zionism since 1953 under Communist regime

from: Zionism; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 16

presented by Michael Palomino (2008)

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Racist Zionist madness says that Jewry would be a "nation" which is never possible because Jewry is a religion. Add to this the Arabs were never asked if a "Jewish State" would be built. But many Jews believed the Jewish racist Zionists and warmongers, called "Zionists" with it's racist Herzl booklet "The Jewish State". Zionist racism is legal until now (2008) and their racist books like "The Jewish State" from racist Herzl are not forbidden...]

[Early emigration to Palestine and contacts - travel memoirs of Benjamin the Second of 1856 - further Romanian Jews settling in Palestine 1873-1877]

<The Jews from the principalities of Moldavia and Walachia had rooted religious ties with Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]]. In Jerusalem, Tiberias, Safed, and Hebron there were groups of Jews who had emigrated from these two Rumanian principalities, whence they received aid.

[[Considering that the first Jews who had emigrated to Palestine needed aid from Europe - this already should have been a big sign that mass emigration of Jews to Palestine would end in a disaster or eternal war. But racist Zionists cannot think...]]

At the middle of the 19th century the first modern pre-Zionist ideas arose in Rumania [[Romania]]. Israel Benjamin, known as Benjamin the Second, a native of Falticeni (Moldavia), advocated Jewish agricultural settlement in Erez Israel in his travel memoirs, which were published in 1856.

The first pre-Zionist groups were established starting in 1873, with the trend for the participants to emigrate to Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]] and dedicate themselves to agriculture. The initiative began that year from Nicoresti with a group of 100 families, joined by other families from Tecuci, Ivesti, Galati, Piatra Neamt, Bacau, and Jassy.

In 1875 a group from Moinesti sent a delegate, David Schub, to Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]] to study the possibilities of settlement. The war between Russia and Turkey in 1877 hindered the continuation of that movement.

The Yishuv Erez Israel Movement

[Fund raising in Romania for Jewish settlements in Palestine in 1880 - new Jews for emigration to Palestine]

In 1880 Eleazar Rokeah (Rokeaḥ) arrived in Rumania [[Romania]] from Erez Israel to collect funds for an agricultural settlement, Gei Oni, near Safed. He also unexpectedly found candidates for aliyah [[emigration to Palestine]] partly because of the difficult living conditions of the Jewish population after the Congress of Berlin (1878). One year after Rokeah's (Rokeaḥ's) mission, groups that called themselves Hevrat (Ḥevrat) Yishuv Erez (Ereẓ) Israel al yedei Avodat Adamah (Society to Settle Erez (Ereẓ) Israel by Working the Land) existed in 30 (col. 1132)

Rumanian [[Romanian]] towns. The members of these groups decided to emigrate with their families. The publisher and editor in chief of Ha-Maggid, David Gordon, suggested the creation of a central committee, and on Jan. 11-12, 1882, the first meeting of 32 branches from throughout the country took place in Focsani. The president of the meeting was Samuel *Pineles. It was decided that the first group of 100 families was to leave for Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]] before Passover, and resolutions were adopted in order to subsidize the settlement. Among the leaders of the movement were R. Avner Kasvan, Karpel Lippe, the Hebrew writer Israel Teller, and others. The central committee was in Galati, and Pineles was secretary.

[Public prime minister's support for the "creation of the Palestinian Kingdom" in 1882 - support promised by Laurence Oliphant - Turkish sultan blocks because of Egypt events]

In February 1882 the Rumanian [[Romanian]] parliament discussed the "creation of the Palestinian Kingdom", and Prime Minister I.C. Bratianu declared that the Rumanian government would give its wholehearted support to this plan. In May 1882 the second meeting with delegates from 28 localities took place in Jassy, with the visit of Laurence Oliphant. The English gentile spoke at the meeting and promised financial aid from non-Jews. Meanwhile Pineles negotiated with the Turkish consul in Galati and, with the approval of the Turkish ambassador in Bucharest, obtained the assurance that Rumanian Jews would be able to settle in Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]], except for the Jerusalem region, in groups of 50 to 100 families. At the same time a delegation sent from Bucharest to Constantinople was received by the sultan, the vizier, and the minister of the interior. As a result of these audiences, a decision favorable to the settlement of Rumanian Jews was adopted at the meeting of the Turkish cabinet. The sultan, however, refrained from giving his own approval because of the events in Egypt.

The Beginning of Settlement

[The foundation of racist Zionist Jewish settlements of Rosh Pinnah, Zikhron Ya'akov, and Azilei (Aẓilei) Benei Israel]

While negotiations were taking place, from the spring of 1882, delegates left Rumania for Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]] in order to buy land there, and, from towns such as Moinesti, Barlad, Bacau, Bucharest, Tulcea, dozens of families had already emigrated. The group from Moinesti had sent their own delegate, David Schub, who in the summer of that year had bought the lands at Gei Oni, where a previous settlement of Jews from Safed had failed.

In August 1882 the first organized 39 families (228 persons), emigrated; the nucleus of this group was formed by those from Moinesti who founded the [[racist Zionist Jewish]] village of Rosh Pinnah. The central committee also purchased another 6,000 dunams, and [[the racist Zionist Jewish settlement]] Zikhron Ya'akov was with 386 settlers. The creation of these two colonies gave an impetus to the aliyah [[emigration to Palestine]], and until the end of 1882 a total of 1,322 settlers had left Rumania.

In the summer of the same year movement for agricultural training was started on estates leased by Jews. At the same time, a number of youth organizations held a joint meeting at Galati in December 1882 with delegates from 12 towns and founded [[the racist Zionist Jewish settlement]] Azilei (Aẓilei) Benei Israel.

[Yishuv movement resolution in April 1883 - Baron and banker Rothschild takes over Zikhron Ya'akov since 17 Sept. 1883 - and Rosh Pinnah in November 1883]

In April 1883 a second meeting of the youth organizations took place at which the integration with the Yishuv Erez Israel movement was decided upon. On Sept. 17, 1883, the third meeting of the Yishuv Erez (Ereẓ) Israel movement took place in Galati, and it was decided that the administration of Zikhron Ya'akov would be handed over to Baron Edmond de Rothschild, since the central committee in Rumania [[Romania]] could not provide sufficiently for the economic needs of the village.

In November 1883 Rosh Pinnah, which was in the same situation, also passed to Rothschild's administration. The 60 branches of the movement were dissolved one by one. The central committee ceased its activity in 1884. The pre-Zionist movement was resurrected again in Rumania [[Romania]] under the influence of the movement in Russia.

[Hovevei Zion (Love to Zion) in Romania since 1890 - land purchase - racist Herzl booklet The Jewish State in 1896 - more waiting Jews for Palestine]

Between 1890 and 1892, branches of Hovevei (Ḥovevei) Zion were founded in some towns. By 1895 such branches existed in 31 towns and two conferences had been held. A central committee was elected under the management of Pineles, and once groups of potential settlers organized. A plot of 11,000 dunams was acquired in Brustras and a group of 80 families from Jassy, together with another 16 families from Bulgaria, acquired another 18,000 dunams on the east side of the Jordan. [[Racist]] Herzl's [[[racist booklet]] Der Judenstaat [[The Jewish State, word for word: The Jew State]] was published in 1896, and by the end of that year the first Rumanian translation appeared in Botosani. Pineles started to collect the signatures of those who wished to settle in Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]]. Some 50,000 Rumanian Jews signed the petition.

[[Racist Herzl wrote in his racist booklet "The Jewish State" that all Arabs can be driven away as the natives in the criminal racist "USA" had been driven away, and all Arabs should be enslaved. The Zionists also had the project of a Jewish Empire ("Greater Israel") from Nile to Euphrates according to 1st Mose chapter 15 phrase 18. The Arabs organized resistance. This racist book is legal until today. Considering that the racist Zionist Jewish settlements had no base and always needed help from Europe it's not understandable that this political line to settle in the desert and in a perpetual war against the Arabs is pursued. But the racist Zionist madness could not be stopped. There was missing a good anti-Zionist leader as it seems to protect the Jewish masses from emigration to the Zionist war trap against the Arabs in Palestine...]]

[First racist Zionist Congress]

Shortly before the First [[racist]] Zionist Congress in Basle (1897) the third meeting of Hovevei (Ḥovevei) Zion took place in Galati, expressing support for [[racist]] Herzl's [[racist]] political Zionism. The First [[racist]] Zionist Congress was opened by a speech of the oldest delegate Karpel Lippe. Pineles was elected vice-president of the Congress. During the fourth conference of Hovevei (Ḥovevei) Zion in 1898, the Basle Program was unanimously accepted. The number of
[[racist]] Zionist groups increased from 26 in 1897 to 136 in 1899. (col. 1133)

[Romanian racist Zionism declining - racist Zionist weekly Ha-Tikvah]

The deadlock in which the [[racist]] World Zionist Movement found itself caused the number of active Rumanian [[racist]] Zionist groups to decrease from 136 in 1899 to 56 in 1911. An additional reason for the decline was the creation of the Union of Native Jews (U.E.P.) in 1910. The Union, which dedicated itself to the fight for local Jewish emancipation, attracted the active participation of many [[racist]] Zionist leaders. But the younger generatio of [[racist]] Zionists wanted a Jewish national emphasis within the movement for political emancipation. A group of young scholars, directed by Jacob *Nacht, fought against the trend toward assimilation in the U.E.P. by encouraging Jewish cultural activities, e.g., Rumanian translations of Hebrew and Yiddish literature and the introduction of Hebrew as a living language in schools. In this spirit the weekly paper Ha-Tikvah, edited by Leon Gold, was published in Galati in 1914. It had a great influence on Jewish life in Rumania [[Romania]] and included among its contributors A.L. *Zissu, Mattathias Friedman, and J. Nacht, as well as almost all the more important Jewish writers of Rumania [[Romania]].

[[The very important time from 1914 to 1918 with many battles, deaths, hardship and changes of territories is missing in the article]].

Between the Two World Wars.

[Racist Zionist organizations in Romania 1919-1939: Jewish "nationality" and "citizenship" questions]

[[The madness that Jewry would be a "nation" is going on. But Jewry can never be a "nation", but it's a religion independent from any nation. The definition as a "nation" only brought enemies, new anti-Semitism and wars...]]

In March 1919 the [[racist]] Zionist leadership of Galati published a program of Jewish demands to be presented at the Versailles peace negotiations. It demanded complete political, cultural, and religious autonomy for Jews as a national minority. Under the influence of the young [[racist]] Zionist leaders, the U.E.P. rejected the attempts of the Rumanian government to evade again the problem of Jewish citizenship by involved juridical proceedings, as was the case after the Congress of Berlin in 1878. The Jewish population followed the instructions of the U.E.P.leaders and boycotted the government's equivocal laws on Jewish citizenship.

[Paris Peace Conference - Jewish delegates in Romania]

Rumanian [[racist]] Zionists, together with delegates from the U.E.P., were included in the Comité des Délégations Juives at the Versailles Peace Conference. After the Jews finally obtained collective naturalization in 1920 as a result of the Versailles peace treaty, there remained the problem of Jewish participation in elections and in the political life of the country. The U.E.P. supported the idea of Jewish candidates. Therefore, in the next year, the U.E.P. joined the [[racist]] Zionists in presenting a separate Jewish list. Because of fraudulent election procedures, not one Jewish deputy was elected. It was only in 1926 that the first Jewish national deputies entered parliament, but they were representatives of territories annexed by Rumania [[Romania]] after the war: Bessarabia, Bukovina, and Transylvania. The [[racist]] Zionist Organization in the rest of Rumania [[Romania]] went on with its policy of neutrality in internal politics. [[...]]

[Mass movement after Balfour Declaration since 1917 - change of the headquarter town to Bucharest - more younger racist Zionist leaders - racist Jewish national parties and racist Zionist congregations]

In the new era after the Balfour Declaration, [[racist]] Zionism became a mass movement whose principal activity was the collection of funds. [[...]] In 1919, at a [[racist]] Zionist conference in Bucharest, it was decided to transfer the central headquarters from Galati to Bucharest and to draw the leadership more and more from the younger generation.

In 1924 the [[racist]] Zionist group Renaşterea's initiative, the Jewish Party was created in Muntenia and Moldavia; it included [[racist]] Zionists, especially from the intellectual younger generation. Along with the Jewish-national deputies elected from the annexed territories, S. Singer and Mişu Weissman were elected to parliament from Muntenia and Moldavia in 1931 and 1932, respectively. At the same time such [[racist]] Zionist groups as Ze'irei (Ẓe'irei) Zion, Po'alei Zion, Mizrachi [[religious Zionists]], and the Revisionists were formed. [[Racist]] Zionist leadership had been drawn from the ranks of the [[racist]] General ZIonists until 1930, when the first coalition of radicals and Ze'irei (Ẓe'irei) Zion was elected to the leadership. The [[racist]] Zionist youth movements remained organized along the traditional lines existing in the [[racist]] World Zionist Organization.

[Zionist schooling and pioneering in Romania]

In 1920 Rumania's [[racist]] Zionist Organization tried to create a school for teachers of Hebrew at Jassy, but it only functioned one year because the Rumanian authorities refused to authorize it. IN 1925 a hakhsharah farm to train halutzim (pioneers for Palestine) was created in Jassy. Between the two world wars [[racist]] Zionist organizations functioned in 71 Rumanian towns, and a central [[racist]] Zionist Council was established in Bucharest. WIZO, which had 5,000 members in its branches in 33 towns, set up 17 kindergartens in which the language of instruction was Hebrew. It also established the agricultural and housekeeping school Ayanot at Nes Ziyyonah (Ẓiyyonah) in Palestine.

[Romanian land purchase at Mt. Carmel and in the Haifa region]

On Mt. Carmel between 1922 and 1925, 3,500 dunams (875 acres) of land were acquired by a Rumanian group and given the name Ahuzah (Aḥuzah) (actually Ahuzat (Aḥuzat) Herbert Samuel), on which (col. 1134)

some of its 1,000 members settled. Another Rumanian society bought land in the Haifa Bay area.

[[The Arabs are not asked, and the Arabs are not mentioned in the article. The Arabs don't count for the racist Zionists. Why should the Arabs be counted, and why should they count? The Arabs are foreseen to be eliminated, see the racist Herzl booklet "The Jewish State". Until today this racist booklet is legal to have...]]

The [[racist]] Zionist Press

During the interwar period, many [[racist]] Zionist magazines were issued in Rumanian. Among the more important publications were:
-- Ştiri din lumea Evreiască ("News from the Jewish World"), the official organ of the Zionist Organization;
-- Renaşterea Noastrã ("Our Revival"), the organ of the radical group, which also expressed the point of view of the [[racist]] Jewish Party;
-- Drumuri Nouă ("New Roads"), first the Revisionist organ, then the organ of the [[racist]] Jewish State party
-- and Tribuna Evreiască ("The Jewish Platform"; Jassy).

In addition, the monthly magazine Hasmonaea, organ of the [[racist]] Zionist students, was published regularly.

[[The whole emigration movement 1919-1939 is missing in the article]].

World War II Period

[Romania as transit land for emigration to Palestine since 1939 - racist Zionist fund raising activities - closed racist Zionist organizations in August 1942 - illegal racist Jewish Zionism underground]

After the invasion of Poland in 1939, Rumania [[Romania]] became a transit rout for aliyah [[emigration to Palestine]] from eastern Europe. Britain, however, pressured the Rumanian government to stop the flow of aliyah from and through the country. At the beginning of 1940 the collection of [[racist]] Zionist funds was forbidden, but it was authorized again on Feb. 26, 1940, under the condition that the [[racist]] Zionist leadership would not encourage emigration. In September 1940, however, the government of Ion *Antonescu, which approved of Jewish emigration, came to power and negotiations were held between [[racist]] Zionists and the government on emigration plans. The [[racist]] Zionist Organization continued to work even after December 1941, when all other Jewish organizations were dissolved. The [[racist]] Zionist Organization was dissolved only in August 1942, by the order of Gustav Richter, Eichmann's agent in Rumania [[Romania]].

However, the [[racist]] Zionist leadership and youth movements clandestinely continued their activities, while the semi-official organ of the German legation, Bukarester Tageblatt [[Bucharest Daily News]] carried on a defamatory campaign against the [[racist]] Zionists. The Rumanian government continued to negotiate with the [[racist]] Zionists about emigration, and at the same time a Jewish underground, in which [[racist]] Zionist leaders also participated, was formed.

[Emigration to Palestine from Romanian harbors]

From the beginning of 1939 until the very capitulation of Rumania in August 1944, 31 ships with more than 13,000 emigrants, some of whom were refugees from Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia, left from Rumanian harbors. The Palestine Office of the [[racist]] Zionist Organization in Bucharest succeeded in continuing its activity in the guise of a travel agency. Detecting these underground activities, the Germans initiated the imprisonment of the leaders of the [[racist]] Zionist Organization and the youth movements in January and February of 1944. Diplomatic intervention, especially by the International Red Cross, obtained their release, however. Imminent German defeat and the approach of the Allies allowed A.L. Zissu, a [[racist]] Zionist leader, to obtain from Rumanian ministers in June 1944 the authorization to create an emigration office which was to serve as a cover for the underground [[racist]] Zionist Executive. In order to report on the situation of Jews in Rumania [[Romania]], the [[racist]] Zionist leaders maintained contact secretly with the Jewish Agency in Jerusalem during the whole period of underground activity.

[[There is missing the deportation of Romanian Jews to Transylvania and eventual racist Zionist activity there]].

Post-World War II Period

[Emigration wave 1944-1948 under racist Zionist leadership by illegal immigration - racist Zionist parties - anti-Zionism and trials of the Romanian government since 1948 - emigration wave until 1952]

Soon after the cessation of hostilities in Rumania [[Romania]] in August 1944, the [[racist]] Zionist Organization resumed its legal activity and attracted many members because of the desire of most Jews to emigrate. The [[racist]] Zionist parties and youth organizations were reestablished, and [[racist]] Zionist weekly magazines began to appear. From 1944 to 1948 a [[racist]] Zionist publishing house, Bicurim, published about 80 volumes of translations from Hebrew literature and works of [[racist]] Zionist history and ideology. Although Britain continued to restrict Jewish migration to Palestine according to the White Paper of 1939, 30,000 Rumanian Jews entered Palestine "illegally" before 1948.

After World War II the Jewish Communists founded the Jewish Democratic Committee, in which at first the [[racist]] [[racist]] Zionist Socialists also participated. But the latter were eliminated after the creation of the [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] State of Israel as the Jewish Democratic Committee started an anti-Zionist campaign.

[[The Romanian government started the anti-Zionist campaign because it turned out that racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl Israel was a satellite of criminal racist "USA". So, Stalin felt encircled by "US" satellites (Europe, racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl Israel, India, and Japan and started all but possible to stop the Jewish invasion by his propaganda machinery and his allies. Jews in Communist countries had to accept russification, polification etc.]].

As a result of the pressure exerted by the Jewish Democratic Committee, the [[racist]] Zionist Organization and its constituent parties were forced to dissolve at the end of 1948. During the summer of 1950 the leaders of the [[racist]] Zionists and the [[racist]] Zionist youth movements were arrested, tried, and condemned to prison. Some were accused of spying and others of inciting against the Communist regime. Finally, in 1955, under a general political amnesty, the leaders were liberated. (Three of them died in prison and some others soon after their arrival in [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel.

From the end of 1949 until the end of 1952 112,652 Rumanian Jews left for [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel. Then, for a period of ten years, emigration was effectively stopped, only to start again at various times since 1962. The Jewish Democratic Committee was (col. 1135)

dissolved in 1953. All in all, about three-quarters of the Rumanian Jews who survived the Nazi terror went to [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel [[seduced into the eternal war trap against the Arabs...]].

See also *Rumania.

[TH.L.]> (col. 1136)
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Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zionism, vol. 16,
                    col. 1131-1132
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zionism, vol. 16, col. 1131-1132
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zionism, vol. 16,
                    col. 1133-1134
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zionism, vol. 16, col. 1133-1134
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zionism, vol. 16,
                    col. 1135-1136
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zionism, vol. 16, col. 1135-1136

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