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Encyclopaedia Judaica

Racist Zionist organization in Hungary (Ungarn)

Assimilationists and Orthodox Jews - racist Herzl born in Budapest - strong anti-Zionism - some racist Zionists in Basle 1897 - spread of racist Zionism since 1897 - anti-Zionist government - racist Zionist students, newspapers, sports clubs - Hungarian and Russian racist Zionists meeting during WWI - new national states since 1918 - racist Zionist Jewish nationalism growing - youth abuse for racist Zionist war purpose - emancipation canceled since 1937 - Holocaust - manipulated youth emigrating since 1945

from: Zionism; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 16

presented by Michael Palomino (2008)

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Racist Zionist madness says that Jewry would be a "nation" which is never possible because Jewry is a religion. Add to this the Arabs were never asked if a "Jewish State" would be built. But many Jews believed the Jewish racist Zionists and warmongers, called "Zionists" with it's racist Herzl booklet "The Jewish State". Zionist racism is legal until now (2008) and their racist books like "The Jewish State" from racist Herzl are not forbidden...]

[Hungarian Jewry between assimilationists and orthodox since the 1840s - racist Herzl born in Budapest - no fast spreading of the racist Zionist madness - strong anti-Zionism in Hungary - some racist Zionists in Palestine - some racist Hungarian Zionists at the racist Zionist Congress of 1897]

<Two strong and opposing forces were influential among Hungarian Jewry from the 1840s: on the one hand a desire to assimilate linguistically and culturally into the Magyar [[Hungarian]] nation, and on the other extreme religious conservatism. In addition, Hasidism (Ḥasidism) [[Orthodox]] exerted a substantial influence, particularly in the northern part of the country. These three phenomena were an obstacle to the proliferation of the [[racist]] Zionist idea [[better: a racist madness]] at the end of the 19th century. Nonetheless, the difficult and extended struggle of the [[racist]] Zionists succeeded in spreading the [[racist]] Zionist idea among relatively small groups throughout the country. During the period of the Hovevei (Ḥovevei) Zion a number of enthusiastic supporters of this movement in Hungary maintained ties with other Hovevei (Ḥovevei) Zion beyond the borders. However, even the fact that [[racist]] Theodor Herzl was a native of Budapest and was bound to Hungarian Jewry through familial ties did not facilitate the development of the [[racist]] Zionist movement in Hungary. On a number of occasions [[racist]] Herzl himself declared that [[racist]] Zionism would reach Hungary, but only later on.

In spite of strong opposition to [[racist]] Zionism in religious circles, some Orthodox Jews from Hungary participated in the founding of the world religious [[racist]] Zionist movement. Some Hungarian Jews also settled in Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]] during the 19th century and became an important element in the old yishuv [[Jews in Palestine before 1948]], but as a rule they bore no ties to [[racist]] Zionism. Representatives from Hungary participated in the First [[racist]] Zionist Congress (1897). One of them, János *Rónai, delivered a speech at the [[racist]] Congress and pointed to the normal condition of life of Hungarian Jewry, but he expressed the fear that this situation would deteriorate and predicted that Hungarian Jewry would then join the [[racist]] Zionist movement.

[Manipulations by the racist Zionist movement in Hungary after 1897 under Rónai and Bettelheim - 32 branches in 1898]

Immediately after the Congress, Rónai, an attorney from Transylvania, began to engage in varied organizational activities, establishing branches of the [[racist]] Zionist movement, heading the national efforts at organization, and being elected first chairman of the [[racist]] Hungarian Zionist Organization. In preparation for his appearance at the Congress, he wrote an ideological pamphlet in German entitled Zionismus in Ungarn [[Zionism in Hungary]] (1897), in which he engaged the arguments of both the assimilationist and religious opposition. Another central figure was Samu Bettelheim, who was active in Bratislava. Bettelheim was a [[racist]] religious Zionist, and upon his initiative the first world conference of Mizrachi was convened in his city in 1904. The number of local [[racist]] Zionist groups began to increase, and at the Second [[racist]] Zionist Congress (1898) 32 branches of the Hungarian [[racist]] Zionist Federation were in existence.

[Hungarian anti-Zionist government against fund raising for racist Zionism because of national reasons]

In 1908 the Hungarian authorities became aware of the movement and prohibited collecting money for the [[racist]] Zionist funds. Local [[racist]] Zionists alerted the president of the [[racist]] World Zionist Organization, [[racist Zionist leader]] David Wolffsohn. He visited Budapest and was received by the minister of interior, Count Gyula Andrássy, who displayed understanding and even friendship toward the [[racist]] Zionist (col. 1120)

movement but explained to [[racist Zionist leader]] Wolffsohn that the problem of minorities was very disturbing in Hungary and he could not afford to allow the creation of yet another national minority, the Jewish nation. This approach continued to characterize the position of the Hungarian authorities vis-ŕ-vis [[racist]] Zionism.

[Racist Zionist student movement "Makkabea" since 1903 - racist Zionist newspapers in Hungary - racist Zionist sports clubs]

At the beginning of the 20th century, some of the students at the University of Budapest became [[racist]] Zionists. In 1903 they founded a society called Makkabea, which played a central role in the propagation of the [[racist]] Zionist idea in the capital and the provinces until World War II. The [[racist]] Zionist press was also established by the initiative of this society. The first [[racist]] Zionist organ was Zsidó Néplap [[Jewish Daily News]] which was published from 1905 to 1907. In 1911 another organ Zsidó Szemle [[Jewish Review]] began to appear under the editorship of Jozef Schönfeld. These papers, however, did not succeed in penetrating into wider Jewish circles. A Jewish quarterly called Mult és Jövo [[Past and Future]] began appearing in 1911 under the editorship of Joseph *Patai. Although this literary and artistic periodical was not an official organ of [[racist]] Zionism, it clearly identified with the Jewish nationalist and [[racist]] Zionist trend and achieved great popularity (publication ceased during the Holocaust). [[Racist]] Zionists were also active in the establishment of Jewish sports organizations that maintained ties with similar groups in [[colonial racist kaiser]] Austria.

[Little rise of racist Zionism in colonial Hungary up to 1914]

Feeble attempts were made at the beginning of the century to establish Po'alei Zion in Hungary, but the Jews among Hungarian Social Democrats opposed this idea. The Jewish Territorial Organization (I.T.O.) also set up a branch in Hungary in 1912. Local [[racist]] Zionists became involved in a difficult struggle with the I.T.O., which was also supported by the non-Zionist Jewish press. In spite of all these difficulties, however, on the eve of World War I there were branches of the Hungarian [[racist]] Zionist Organization in many cities throughout [[colonial]] Hungary, and 20 delegates from [[colonial]] Hungary participated in the 11th [[racist]] Zionist Congress (1913).

[1914-1918: racist Hungarian Zionists meet racist Russian Zionists in captivity - Communist Hungarian government closing down the racist Zionist institutions]

During World War I many active [[racist]] Zionists were mobilized into the army, and some who were captured came into contact with Russian Jews and [[Russian racist]] Zionists. These contacts proved to be very fruitful. During the last months of World War I and the period of the Russian Revolution, [[racist]] Zionists, and especially demobilized officers, organized into self-defense units and in a number of places overcame mob attacks on the Jews. The first short-lived Communist regime in Hungary (1919) displayed open hostility to [[racist]] Zionism, prohibited organizational activities, and forced the [[racist]] Zionist organ to close down for a period.

[Parted colonial Hungary - national states in Europe - national racist Jewish Zionist movement in the national states - strong anti-Zionism in Hungary - acknowledgment of racist Jewish Zionist nationalism in 1927 - Pro-Palestine Association]

In the peace treaty that ended World War I, Hungary was divided up, and the [[racist]] Zionist activity in areas annexed to Rumania [[Romania]] Czechoslovakia, Austria, and Yugoslavia began to develop independently of the Hungarian [[racist]] Zionist Organization, whose headquarters were in Budapest. [[Racist]] Zionist activities continued in the limited area of Hungary, where one of the central problems was the extended struggle to acquire government authorization for the [[racist]] Zionist Organization. The leaders of the Neolog Jewish community also opposed the granting of such authorization, since they regarded [[racist]] Zionism as a breach of Hungarian patriotism. Legalization was finally achieved in 1927, with the Hungarian [[racist]] Zionists receiving strong political support from the [[racist]] Zionist Executive in London. The Pro-Palestine Association exerted influence among those Jews who did not formally join the [[racist]] Zionist Organization.

[Abuse of youth enthusiasm in racist Zionist "youth movements"]

By the 16th [[racist]] Zionist Congress (1929) many youth movements had already been formed in Hungary, including He-Halutz (Ḥalutz). A great step forward was the enlargement of the Jewish Agency and the seating of the Hungarian [[racist]] Zionist Joseph Patai, and the chief rabbi of Szeged, Immanuel Löw, who was considered a non-Zionist, on its General Council. In 1937, 17 local branches of the [[racist]] Zionist Organization and 3,600 members existed in Hungary. The number of youth movement members was also substantial.

[Jewish emancipation canceled since 1937 - Jews driven into racist Zionism]

The year 1937 was the last before the cancellation of equal rights for Hungarian Jews (the Hungarian parliament had already begun deliberating the law to reduce their rights, which was passed in 1938). The first anti-Jewish law, the restrictions on Jewish economic activities, and the proximity of German Nazism - after Germany had annexed Austria [[without one single shot]] - increased the interest of Hungarian Jewry in the [[racist]] Zionist movement. [[Racist]] Zionist cultural activities expanded, especially those of the youth movements. The number of Jews who wished to got to Palestine, as well as the number of those who realized their desire, was one the rise.

[Holocaust: Jewish refugees in Hungary from Austria and Poland etc. - Transylvanian and Slovak racist Zionist leaders since 1940 - Aid and Rescue Committee - contacts to Eichmann]

Jewish refugees from Austria, Poland, and other places began arriving in Hungary, and aid was extended to them principally through the framework of the [[racist]] Zionist movement. Efforts to move (col. 1121)

refugees to Palestine through "illegal" channels were made under [[racist]] Zionist auspices, particularly through the youth movements. With the annexation of northern Transylvania to Hungary in 1940, a group of Transylvanian [[racist]] Zionist leaders experienced in public and political life arrived in Budapest. Among them were Resző Rudolf *Kasztner and the newspaper editor Ernő *Marton.

The [[racist]] Zionist Socialist movement was further strengthened during this period, and Béla Dános, its leader, also took upon himself varied activities. Youth leaders arrived from Slovakia and other parts of former Czechoslovakia, bringing with them strong [[racist]] Zionist views. The movement in Hungary was then headed by Ottó *Komoly. Those who came from the annexed provinces, as well as active [[racist]] Zionists who had fled from other countries, were aided by, and extended aid to, the rescue activities of the [[racist]] Zionist movement and to some degree the Aid and Rescue Committee set up for that purpose. The Aid and Rescue Committee established contact with Adolf *Eichmann to discuss rescue plans and sent Joel *Brand, one of the active [[racist]] Zionist Socialists, on his tragic mission. During World War II Hungarian [[racist]] Zionists were active mainly in rescue activities.

[[The deportations to the concentration camps and to the tunnel systems could not be stopped at the end, as it seems]].

[1945-1970: manipulated Jewish youth emigrating to Palestine - anti-Zionist Hungarian government]

After World War II, in 1945, the [[racist]] Zionist Organization in Hungary was reconstituted. [[Racist]] Zionist youth movements directed many young people to Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]]. The new government displayed hostility toward the [[racist]] Zionist activities from the very start and tried gradually to liquidate the [[racist]] movement. In 1949 [[after the foundation of racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl Israel without borderline definition and with racist Herzl booklet "The Jewish State" as it's base with the plan to drive away and to enslave all Arabs, and with the project of a Jewish Empire from Nile to Euphrates according to 1st Mose chapter 15 phrase 18]] the [[racist]] Zionist Organization and all [[racist]] Zionist activities were formally prohibited [[to protect the surviving Hungarian Jews from the war trap of racist Zionism]].

A number of trials, directed specifically against [[racist]] Zionists, were later held by the government, and in other trials, including that of László Rajk, some of the defendants were accused of "conspiring with Zionists". The 50-year history of the [[racist]] Zionist movement in Hungary thus came to an end.

[ED.]> (col. 1122)

[[Anti-Zionist Jews after 1945 are not mentioned. Arabs are not mentioned in the article. Arabs are not asked. The Arabs don't count for the racist Zionist Jews...]]

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Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): [[racist]]
                    Zionism, vol. 16, col. 1119-1120
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): [[racist]] Zionism, vol. 16, col. 1119-1120
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): [[racist]]
                    Zionism, vol. 16, col. 1121-1122
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): [[racist]] Zionism, vol. 16, col. 1121-1122

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