<VATICAN, residence of the *pope who is the ruler of Vatican City.[since 1896]: The Vatican and the [racist Free Mason Herzl] Zionist Movement. [Herzl wants to protect Christian objects in a future Jewish Israel - Herzl with the pope in 1904: the pope wants the conversion of the Jews]
In his programmatic pamphlet, Der Judenstaat (1896), Theodor Herzl gave expression to his awareness of the problem of Christian holy shrines in Palestine. He formulated the Zionist policy (col. 73)
regarding these Christian concerns in clear terms:
"The sanctuaries of Christendom would be safeguarded by assigning to them extraterritorial status such as is well known in the law of nations. We should form a Guard of Honor about these sanctuaries, answering for the fulfillment of this duty with our existence. This Guard of Honor would be the great symbol of the solution of the Jewish Question after eighteen centuries of Jewish suffering."
[[Arabs would be driven away as in the "USA" the natives had been driven away]].
From the First Zionist Congress (1897) onward, this basic Zionist policy vis-à-vis the global Christian concern in the Holy Land was enunciated on numerous occasions and became an integral part of the developing central body of Zionist thinking regarding the Jewish future of Palestine. Herzl himself stated in a letter to the grand duke of Baden, on Sept. 12, 1903, that the holy places should be regarded as
"res sacrae extra commercium gentium" ("a sacred subject outside regular international intercourse").
In the course of his intense political activity and travels, Herzl hoped to win over the sympathies of the Holy See for the Zionist goal. In January 1904 he therefore proceeded to Rome in order to ask the pope to issue a special encyclical which would support, or at least remove, Catholic objection to, the Zionist Program. In return, Herzl meant to guarantee the extraterritorialization of the Christian holy shrines.
Count Lippay, the official painter of the Holy See, was instrumental in arranging the papal audience for Herzl. Prior to that audience, Herzl was granted an audience with the Vatican secretary of state, Cardinal Merry del Val, on Jan. 22, 1904. Herzl told him that he had come to seek the good will of the Holy See for the Zionist cause. Del Val reacted "that as long as the Jews deny the divinity of Christ we certainly cannot side with them. ... How then can we agree to their regaining possession of the Holy Land?"
To which Herzl replied: "We are asking only for the profane earth: the holy places are to be extraterritorialized."
Cardinal Del Val said that "in order that we should come out for the Jewish people in the way you desire, they should first have to accept conversion." The cardinal concluded by stating that he saw "no possibility of our assuming the initiative", to which Herzl retorted: "You are not asked to ... you are only requested to lend your endorsement [confirmation]."
The audience with Pope *Pius X took place on Jan. 25, 1904. After Herzl had briefly outlined his request for support, Pius said:
"We are unable to favor this [racist] movement. We cannot prevent the [Zionist] Jews going to Jerusalem, but we could never sanction it. The ground of Jerusalem, if it were not always sacred, has been sanctified by the life of Jesus Christ. As the head of the Church, I cannot answer you otherwise. The Jews have not recognized our Lord; therefore we cannot recognize the Jewish People."
Herzl responded by mentioning the principle of res sacrae extra commercium gentium, but the pope reacted that as much as the Turkish possession of the holy places was disagreeable, "to sanction the Jewish wish to occupy these sites, that we cannot do." Herzl then turned to the tragedy of the Jewish people, adding: "We need a land for these harried people." Pius X: "Must it be Jerusalem?" Herzl: "We are not asking for Jerusalem, but for Palestine. for only the secular land." The pope: "We cannot be in favor of it."
Thus ended the first political encounter of modern [racist] Zionism with the Vatican on a wholly negative note, in a mixture of theological prejudice, lack of comprehension, and a general attitude of aloofness [[restraint]].
[Racist Zionist movements within British and French plans after 1917 - negotiations with Vatican - Vatican accepts racist Zionism for Palestine]
The matter of Christian concern regarding Palestine came to the fore again during World War I, when the [racist] Zionist leadership, under Chaim Weizmann and Nahum Sokolow, worked for the securing of Allied support for handing over the administration of Palestine, after the expected defeat of Turkey, to Great Britain. Conflicting (col. 74)
interests in the Middle East between Great Britain and France were by then known to exist. Catholic interest, represented by the Vatican, also had to be reckoned with Weizmann entrusted Sokolow, the ranking member of the [racist] Zionist Executive, with a number of political assignments, inter alia, to obtain the consent, or at least the acquiescence of the Vatican, to the principle of the Jewish National Home in Palestine in the framework of a British administration.
Sokolow himself summed up this episode of his important mission to Rome rather summarily. "With regard to the question of the Holy Places, it was considered advisable to enter into negotiations with the Vatican." Sokolow had conferences with some cardinals - especially Cardinal Gasparri - and on May 10, 1917, he was received in audience by the pope. These conferences led to a most satisfactory attitude on the part of the Vatican toward [racist] Zionism.
In fact, the Sokolow audience with Pope *Benedict XV can be regarded as a landmark in the development of the Vatican's attitude toward Zionism. A full transcript of this audience has been published by Sokolow's son, Florian:
Pope: ... The revival of Israel through the people of Israel. Have I understood the purpose of [racist] Zionism correctly? What a turnabout of fate! Nineteen hundred years ago Rome destroyed your homeland, and today, when you seek to rebuild it, you have chosen a path which leads via Rome [[without asking the Arabs who are protesting already]].
Sokolow: ... Rome fell soon after, but Israel still exists and lives on, and it has vitality enough to demand the return of its country ...
Pope: ... Yes this is the will of Divine Providence, this is what the Almighty desires ...
Sokolow: ... Our program has two directions: The creation of a Jewish spiritual and cultural center, and at the same time to build there for the Jews a National Home. We aspire to build there a large center where the Jews may develop their culture in freedom ...
Pope: ... This is a great idea [[without asking the Arabs]].
Sokolow went on to describe in some detail [racist Zionist] Jewish aspirations for a safe haven for a people that had gone through much suffering. To build such a National Home was a matter of urgency, not necessarily because of any acute suffering at that very moment, but because it was possible just then to take care of future needs should they arise. On the pope's inquiry whether there would be enough room in Palestine, Sokolow replied that after intense preparatory work it would be possible to realize this goal. Further responding to the pope's question, Sokolow spoke of the political activities of the Zionist movement and advanced the opinion that, as things stood, it was Great Britain that would probably be given the responsibility of administering Palestine.
Pope: What exactly can I do?
Sokolow: We rely on the Holy See for moral support and sympathy [[and Arabs are never asked]].
[The Jewish guarantee for the Christian holy places in Palestine - Arabs are never asked - "agricultural work"]
The talk then went on to the question of the holy sites. Sokolow emphasized that the National Home would scrupulously observe the sanctity of all religious sites and emphasized that for the Jewish people the whole of the land is sacred, although there are a few sites which are of special historic significance, e.g., the tomb of the patriarchs in Hebron, the Western Wall, the Kings' tombs in Jerusalem. ...
The pope then mentioned the existing arrangements, traditional laws, etc. regarding the holy places and added that these would have to be observed fully. He added:
"I have no doubt that we shall be able to reach a satisfactory understanding. All possible friction on this count ought to be removed ... It is the Holy Land we speak about, and we strive for peace and goodwill." [[without asking any Arab...]]
Sokolow pointed out that under British rule the holy sites would be no less taken care of than under the Turks. The pope replied: "You are right."
Sokolow went on to describe the agricultural work (col.75)
already done in Palestine and that future Jewish settlers would intensify this constructive work. The pope responded:
"The Holy Scriptures are indeed true - a land that flows with milk and honey!" [[but there were mostly desert and swamps...]]
At the conclusion of the audience the pope said: "Yes, I do hope that we shall be good neighbors..."
During the years between the *Balfour Declaration and the conferring of the Palestine Mandate on Great Britain by the League of Nations (1923), Weizmann felt it was necessary to assuage [[to calm]] Catholic fears regarding the building of a Jewish National Home in the framework of a British Mandate. [[Arab newspapers were arguing heavily against a "Jewish State" and the expulsion of Arabs from Palestine already]]. In the winter of 1921-22 he traveled to Rome, where he twice saw Cardinal Gasparri, the Vatican secretary of state, who expressed various Catholic concerns, e.g., regarding visas for Christian pilgrims to the Holy Land. Weizmann pointed out that all such subjects would become the exclusive responsibility of the Mandatory government and that the Jewish authorities would certainly not become involved in such British administrative matters. Later in this conversation, when Weizmann went on to describe the new Jewish settlements, the draining of swamps by pioneers, the afforestation projects, etc., the cardinal exclaimed: "C'est votre université que je crains!" ("What I fear is rather your university").
[April 1945: Meeting between Shertok and Pope Pius XII]
The last direct contact between the Holy See and [racist] Zionism before the Declaration of Independence in 1948 took place in April 1945, when the head of the Political Department of the Jewish Agency, Moshe Shertok (*Sharett), was received in "Private Audience" by Pope Pius XII (whom, as Cardinal Pacelli, Weizmann had met some years earlier). Shertok had been visiting Jewish units composed of volunteers from Palestine that were then fighting the Germans with the Allied forces in northern Italy. He had then continued to Rome, where the pope received him. Upon his return to Jerusalem Shertok reported to the Jewish Agency Executive, on April 22, 1945, that this audience was completely inconclusive and led nowhere.
With the majority resolution of the UN General Assembly on Nov. 29, 1947, to partition Palestine and set up a Jewish as well as an Arab state in part of the country, with Jerusalem to become internationalized, and the Declaration of the State of Israel following the termination of the British Mandate, the relationship with the Vatican assumed a new character.
[[The Arab side got support from the British to fight the Jewish invasion, and the Zionist Free Mason State of Israel was found without any definition of borderlines...]]
The Vatican and the State of Israel. [Partition plan and guarantee for holy "Christian" sites]
The partition resolution of the UN General Assembly was preceded by an extended *UNSCOP investigation of the whole Palestine problem. In the course of this investigation, which included detailed hearings in Jerusalem of representatives of the various religious faiths, the idea of internationalizing the city of Jerusalem gradually crystallized and was consequently adopted as part of the committee's recommendations to the General Assembly.
When the General Assembly subsequently approved the partition plan, the internationalization of Jerusalem constituted an integral component of the overall scheme. The Vatican was known to back such an idea strongly, amounting to the withholding of the city of Jerusalem, with the major holy sites therein, from both the future Jewish and Arab states that were to be established in partitioned Palestine and the establishment of a "corpus separatum" for Jerusalem, under which the city would be governed by a special statute to be worked out, in due course, by the UN Trusteeship Council. The question of the future of Jerusalem and the *holy places was, in fact, a major criterion for the Vatican's attitude to the Palestine question in general and the new State of [racist Zionist Free Mason Herzl] Israel in particular.
[The plans and the reality: no Arab state, no "corpus separatum", Jordan invasion - divided Jerusalem - new question about the "Christian" holy places]
The UN-envisaged Arab state was never set up; neither was the "corpus separatum" established. Instead, the Arab Legion of Transjordan occupied the territories originally (col. 76)
earmarked for the Palestinian Arab state and also took by force of arms part of Jerusalem, including almost all holy sites.
During the period of warfare in Palestine - from early December 1947 until armistice agreements were signed by Israel and her four Arab neighbor states in February-July 1949 - the Holy See intervened twice in special appeals to both sides to stop the bloodshed and restore peace to the Holy Land. The first appeal was made in June 1948, while the second took the form of a special encyclical, "De Sacris Palestinae Locis", published on April 14, 1949, which went further and clearly enunciated the stand of the Vatican on the Jerusalem question. Since at that time Jerusalem was already a divided city, with Israel and Jordan holding the western and eastern parts, respectively, the encyclical avoided the unrealistic term of "corpus separatum", but rather called for "an international regime for the city and its environs, the safeguarding of all Holy Places in Palestine and free access for all pilgrims to them, liberty to all Catholic cultural institutions in the country, and conservation of the rights acquired by Catholics."
An official Israel response to the encyclical came from President Weizmann on April 23, 1949, in the course of an address in New York. It also reflected the reference to the Holy Places in the Declaration of Independence. Weizmann said that Israel "pledges itself to ensure full security for religious institutions ... to grant the supervision of the Holy Places by those who hold them sacred ... and to accept the fullest international safeguards and controls for their immunity and protection."
Alluding to the interaction between the universal interest in the holy places and Israel's responsibility for the day-to-day administration of Jerusalem, the president declared that "no real incompatibility exists between ... Christianity ... and the aspirations of the people of Jerusalem."
[Connection between racist Zionism and the Vatican against the Arabs - Jewish services for "Christian" pilgrims]
There thus developed a broad basis for mutual understanding between the Vatican and [racist Zionist Free Mason Herzl] Israel, and the practical and routine aspects of Catholic interests in Israel found a normal pattern of progress: religious life became reactivated after the dust of battle settled; Church properties began to be repaired, with considerable assistance from the government of [Zionist Free Mason Herzl] Israel; arrangements were made to enable Christians to cross the lines in Jerusalem so that holy sites in both the Israel-held and the Jordan-held part of the city were accessible; and there was also an upsurge in pilgrimages, which from that time onward again became an important component of tourism to the Holy Land. (After the Six-Day War in June 1967, which brought in its wake the reunification of Jerusalem, pilgrimages increased perceptibly and were encouraged by cardinals in Catholic countries and pilgrimage agencies associated with the Vatican in Rome).
[The Jerusalem question in talks between racist Zionists and the "Christian" Vatican]
While Christian life in Israel thus proceeded smoothly [[and the Palestinians had no right and no state at all but had to take refuge in refugee camps and refugee settlements in the neighboring states]], the question of Jerusalem continued to be discussed in the *United Nations, albeit [[though]] inconclusively. Reporting on these deliberations to the Knesset, Jan. 2, 1950, Foreign Minister Moshe Sharett made a major policy statement on the holy places, emphasizing that Israel had "the deepest interest in reaching an honorable agreement with the principal institutions of Christendom."
He then voiced the conviction that "important Church circles appreciated the goodwill and positive efforts shown by the Government of Israel to ensure fully the rights of Christianity as a whole, and of the Catholic Church in particular. ..."
On March 28, 1952, Sharett was again received by Pope *Pius XII in private audience, but this time as the first foreign minister of the new [racist Zionist Free Mason Herzl] Jewish state. Sharett delivered greetings from the State of Israel and spoke of the secure and active religious life of Israel's Christian citizens. The pope responded by (col. 77)
reciprocating the greetings and sending good wishes to all the people living in [racist Zionist Free Mason Herzl] Israel.
[New Pope John XXIII: "contribution to the true success of this beloved people" - new popes and invitations]
When a new pope, *John XXIII, assumed office, congratulatory messages were exchanged between the president of Israel, I. Ben-Zvi, and the newly elected pope (Oct. 29, 1958). Pope John XXIII, who as Cardinal Roncalli had been known for his sympathetic attitude toward the Jewish people, introduced a new warmth and closeness into the official relationship between the Holy See and the State of Israel. In his message notifying Israel's president of his election, he spoke of goodwill and love and pledged Catholic contribution to the "true success of this beloved people" in Israel.
In his response, President Ben-Zvi assured the new pope of the welfare, safety, and progress of Israel's Catholic citizens, alongside all its other citizens. Beginning with the funeral services for Pope Pius XII, through the coronation of John XXIII in 1958, and against for the coronation of Pope *Paul VI in 1963, the State if [racist Zionist Free Mason Herzl] Israel was officially invited to be represented, although no regular diplomatic relations existed between the Vatican and Israel. The Israel delegations to these services and celebrations were of ambassadorial level; they were also fully and publicly recognized, and the Israel representatives also received the official decorations, the Great Cross of St. Sylvester (bestowed on Ambassador E. Sasson in 1958, the first Israeli ever to receive such Vatican decoration) and in 1963 the order of St. Gregory the Great (bestowed on Ambassador M. Fischer).
[1964: The pope in Palestine]
In January 1964, during a recess in the deliberations of the Vatican Council, Pope Paul VI set out on his dramatic pilgrimage to the Holy Land, the first pope ever to do so. He spent three days on this pilgrimage, and out of these just one, Jan. 5, 1964, in Israel. President Shazar welcomed the pope, with prime Minister Eshkol in attendance, and presented him with a specially struck pilgrim's medallion on which appear the words "Love thy neighbor as thyself".
Pope Paul reciprocated by giving President Shazar, inter alia, two elaborate silver candelabra. The messages which were exchanged spoke of the significance of this pilgrimage, mutual respect, concord, and peace.
[1967: Six-Day War and terrorist actions - messages of the pope to all sides - "unified" Jerusalem and new Vatican's support for Herzl Israel]
During the Six-Day War Pope Paul VI sent an urgent message on June 8 to the heads of state of [racist Zionist Free Mason Herzl] Israel, Egypt, Iraq, and Jordan, in which he pleaded for a speedy cessation of warfare and the restoration of peace. (Subsequent events in the area in the years of the uneasy cease-fire, Egypt's "war of attrition", hijacking of aircraft by Arab terrorist gangs [[suppressed Palestinians]], retaliatory raids, etc., evoked numerous similar messages from Paul VI to heads of state in the Middle East. Not all of these messages were considered by Israel to be wholly impartial, notably a consolatory one sent to President Helou of Lebanon after aircraft in Beirut were destroyed by Israel forces, following the loss of Jewish life through an Arab terrorist attack on an Israel civilian aircraft).
The Six-Day War brought in its wake a significant change in the Vatican's attitude toward Israel and the question of Jerusalem. The reunification of the city and the application of the law of Israel in unified Jerusalem brought all holy sites under the overall jurisdiction and protection of the government of Israel. Since the Christian and Muslim shrines assumed their sacredness only centuries after the destruction of Jewish sovereignty in Jerusalem in the first century of the common era, the new situation was of unprecedented magnitude in its spiritual and factual significance.
[[The Arab side swore revenge and revenge and revenge...]]
On June 22, 1967, the Knesset passed the "Protection of Holy Places Law, 1967" (see *Holy Places). A month after the Six-Day War the Holy See dispatched a special emissary to Jerusalem, Monsignor Felici, to consult with the government of Israel on the new situation that had (col. 78)
arisen and which gave rise to much concern and emotion. An official joint statement, made public on July 15, 1967, upon the conclusion of the talks, spoke of a "friendly atmosphere, mutual understanding" and various possibilities that were discussed concerning the future of the holy places.
A major modification of the Vatican's traditional support until then for the internationalization of Jerusalem was included in the pope's Christmas message, on Dec. 23, 1968, when Paul VI spoke of the desire to "obtain international guarantees for the Holy Shrines". On numerous subsequent occasions the Vatican made it be known that in the light of changed circumstances, a solution satisfactory to the Catholic Church would be according the Holy Places a "Special Status, guaranteed by international law". From the point of view of Israel, this modified new stand on Jerusalem was taken to reflect a realization by the Vatican of the new situation in Jerusalem, united since 1967.
On Oct. 6, 1969, Paul VI received Foreign Minister Abba Eban in official audience. Matters of mutual concern were discussed and the audience was publicized by official Vatican communication channels.
Another development after the 1967 war was the inclusion of the president of [racist Zionist Free Mason Herzl CIA] Israel in the list of recipients of the pope's annual Day-of-Peace Message. The responses by Israel's president were also given their place in the official collation, published every year by the Vatican.
Though no formal diplomatic relations existed in the early 1970s between the Vatican and Israel, mutual contacts were being maintained routinely. This working relationship continued to develop. Israel's ambassador in Rome, although not accredited to the Vatican, frequently met high-ranking Vatican personalities for an exchange of views on current problems. The apostolic delegate in Jerusalem represented the Vatican in Israel, as well as in Jordan and Cyprus, and though not formally accredited, also maintained fruitful working relations with the [racist Zionist Free Mason Herzl CIA] Israel government.
See also *Holocaust and Christian Churches.>
-- T. Herzl: Complete Diaries...., ec. by R. Patai, 5 vols. (1960), 587, 590, 1590-92, 1601-02
-- N. Sokolow: HIstory of Zionism, 2 (1919), 53
-- F. Sokolow: Avi, Nahum Sokolow (1970), ch. 17
-- Ch. Weizmann: Trial and Error (1949),index s.v. Vatican
-- Zionist Central Archives Jerusalem (Reference S/25/9909).
[M.PR.]> (col. 79)
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Vatican, Zioinism and Herzl Israel, vol. 16, col. 73-74
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Vatican, Zioinism and Herzl Israel, vol. 16, col. 75-76
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Vatican, Zioinism and Herzl Israel, vol. 16, col. 77-78
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Vatican, Zioinism and Herzl Israel, vol. 16, col. 79