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Encyclopaedia Judaica

Moshe Dayan

Racist Herzl Zionist Dayan family - cooperative settlement by the father - military action by the sons - general Moshe Dayan and his family

from: Dayan, Moshe; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 5

presented by Michael Palomino (2008)

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The Dayan family

[Father Shemuel Dayan from Ukraine]

<DAYAN, family in Erez Israel. SHEMUEL (1891-1968), pioneer of cooperative settlement in Erez Israel. Dayan was born in Zhashkov, Ukraine, and joined the Zionist movement as a youth, settling in Erez Israel in 1908. There he worked as a laborer in various agricultural settlements and was a founder of the kevuzah [[kibbutz]] *Deganyah Alef and later of Deganyah Bet.

In 1921 he helped found the first *moshav ovedim [[workers' settlements]], *Nahalal. A leader of the *Ha-Po'el ha-Za'ir Party, and later of *Mapai, Dayan represented the moshav movement in yishuv institutions [[institutions before 1948]], in the Histadrut, and at Zionist Congresses. He was a leading member of the Histadrut Agricultural Center (Ha-Merkaz ha-Hakla'i) and a Mapai member in the First, Second, and Third Knesset.

He published books and articles about Nahalal, Deganyah, and the moshav ovedim [[workers' settlements]], including:

-- Nahahal (1936)
-- Moshav Ovedim (1945)
-- Pioneers in Israel (1961)
-- and: Man and the Soil (1965).

[Mother Dayan]

His wife DEVORAH (née Zatolowsky; 1890-1956) was a leader of the women's labor movement and an editor of Devar ha-Po'elet (women workers' weekly). Her articles appearing in the labor press were collected in the books Asapper (1952) and Be-Osher u-ve-Yagon (1959; Pioneer, 1968).

[Sons of Dayan]

The elder son of Shemuel and Devorah was MOSHE *DAYAN, military commander and statesman. Their younger son ZOHAR (1926-1948) died in the Israel War of Independence. A book of his poems and letters, Be-Eragon: Shirim ve-Iggerot was published posthumously in 1950. [...]

[A.A./ED.]> (col. 1371)

<Dayan, Moshe

[Son of a Herzl Zionist - Moshe Dayan becomes a Herzl Zionist]

(1915-   ), Israel military commander and statesman, elder son of Shemuel and Devorah, was born in Deganyah Alef, and raised in the moshav Nahalal. As a young man he was a guard in the village fields, later joining the Haganah. During the riots of 1936-39, he served with the special police force in the Jezreel Valley and Galilee. He was commander of a unit of the "field companies" (peluggot sadeh) in 1938, and participated in the operations of the special night squads commanded by Orde *Wingate.

Dayan was arrested in 1939, together with 42 of his comrades in an illegal Haganah commanders' course, and was sentenced to ten years' imprisonment.

Released in 1941, he joined a reconnaissance unit that preceded the British army's invasion of Syria. He was wounded in an encounter with Vichy forces, and lost an eye. Later he helped set up a broadcasting network, in cooperation with British Intelligence, for clandestine operations behind enemy lines in the event that Palestine should fall to the Germans.

During the War if Independence (1948), Dayan commanded the defense of Jewish settlements in the Jordan Valley. In the spring of 1948 he was named commander of a mechanized battalion that made a daring attack on the town of Lydda and helped in halting the Egyptian forces on the southern front.

In August 1948 Dayan was appointed commander of the Jerusalem front, and reached a local cease-fire (col. 1372)

agreement with the commander of the Arab Legion in the area. In the spring of 1949 he participated in the cease-fire talks between Israel and Jordan at Rhodes. In 1950 and 1951 Dayan was commander first of the southern region and later of the northern region, and also studies at the Senior Officers' School in England. He was appointed chief of operations at General Headquarters in 1952, and in December 1953 became commander in chief, a post he held until January 1958.

Dayan concentrated on improving the fighting strength of soldiers both in the standing army and the reserves. With the increase of fedayeen terrorist activities in 1955, Dayan organized a series of reprisal raids in which selected units of the army penetrated into enemy territory to hit fedayeen bases. He commanded the Israel forces throughout the *Sinai Campaign, starting Oct. 29, 1956, a week after the signing of a military pact between Egypt, Syria, and Jordan with the stated aim of attacking and destroying Israel.

[[At the other hand Israel's Zionist ideology has the aim to establish a "Greater Israel" which is going from the Nile to the Euphrates, see Bible 1st Mose chapter 15, phrase 18. This is never mentioned in the Encyclopaedia Judaica. The majority of the worldwide Jews is NOT Zionist. Also this is not mentioned in the Encyclopaedia Judaica]].

[Dayan as minister in the Zionist Jewish government in Jerusalem]

Ending his army service in 1958, Dayan attended the universities of Tel Aviv and Jerusalem. In the fall of 1959 he was elected to the Knesset as a member of the *Mapai Party, and was named minister of agriculture. Dayan supported *Ben-Gurion during the controversial *Lavon Affair (1960-61 and 1964-65), and in October 1964, after a disagreement with Prime Minister Levi Eshkol, Dayan resigned his post in the government. A year later he was elected to the Sixth Knesset representing *Rafi. In August 1966 he made an independent study tour of the Vietnam war, and his diary covering that visit received wide international coverage.

With the buildup of tension between Egypt and Israel in May 1967, Dayan was invited to join in political and security consultations. During the formation of the "government of national unity" on June 1, public opinion, including wide circles of Mapai, successfully pressed for Dayan's appointment as minister of defense, in which (col. 1373)

capacity he conducted the *Six-Day War. After the war Dayan was given the responsibility for administering the territories occupied by the Israel Army. He devised and implemented a policy of liberal military government, opening the borders for Arab residents of the occupied territories to travel to Arab countries and to trade with them, while maintaining order and security in the Israel-held territories.

Dayan was active in advocating Rafi's reunification with Mapai and *Ahdut ha-Avodah to form the *Israel Labor Party. He was widely admired in Israel for his original thinking and became one of the Israel leaders best known to peoples of other countries. His book Diary of the Sinai Campaign (1966) received wide recognition. He also wrote Mappah Hadashah - Yahasim Aherim (1969) on problems in Israel after the Six-Day War.

[[Human rights are never mentioned and never a theme because Arabs are driven out and staying Arabs are discriminated systematically]].

-- H. Taslitt: Soldier of Israel: the Story of General Moshe Dayan (1969)
-- N. Lau-Lavie: Moshe Dayan: a Biography (1968)
-- P. Jurman: Moshe Dayan, a Portrait (1968)
-- Y. Harel: Ha-Lohem: Hayyav ve-Alilotav shel Mohe Dayan (1967)
-- See also bibliography to *Sinai Campaign and *Six-Day War.

[Y.S.]> (col. 1374)

[Moshe Dayan's wife, son and daughter]

<Moshe's wife RUTH (née Schwartz; 1917-   ) was active in the development of home industries during the early years of Israel, and was head of the Crafts Department in the Ministry of Labor during 1953-54. She was founder and managing director of government-sponsored Maskit, which produces and markets Israel handicrafts.

His daughter YAEL DAYAN SION (1939-   ), author, wrote the novels
-- New Face in the Mirror (1959)
-- Envy the Frightened (1961)
-- Dust (1963)
-- and: Death had Two Sons (1965)
-- as well as Israel Journal, June 1967 (1967).

His son ASSAF (1945-   ) was a film actor.

[A.A./ED.]> (col. 1371)

[[The relationship to the Arabs are never mentioned in the article]].

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Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Moshe Dayan and
                    the Dayan family in Herzl Israel, vol. 5, col.
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Moshe Dayan and the Dayan family in Herzl Israel, vol. 5, col. 1371-1372
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Moshe Dayan and
                    the Dayan family in Herzl Israel, vol. 5, col.
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Moshe Dayan and the Dayan family in Herzl Israel, vol. 5, col. 1373-1374