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Encyclopaedia Judaica

Anti-Semitism in "Soviet Union" 1917-1970

Anti-Semitism with allusions and criminalizations - the "cosmopolitan" - 1917 revolution - Stalin's NEP - purges - liquidations after 1948 - trials - Khrushchev times with propaganda, trials against economic crimes, and elimination of synagogue institutions - Brezhnev times with release and new anti-Semitism  after Six-Day War

from: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Anti-Semitism, vol. 3

presented by Michael Palomino (2008)



<In the Soviet Bloc.


[Allusions in the Soviet anti-Semitic tactics - criminalization of contacts to "western" countries and to criminal racist "USA" with the word "cosmopolitan"]

Anti-Semitism, according to Communist doctrine, is an extremely negative social phenomenon: it could only be part of reactionary, capitalist,and pre-capitalist regimes,in which hatred of the Jews is exploited for the gain of the ruling classes. Lenin, along with the other revolutionaries in (col. 147)

czarist Russia, was a sincere and resolute opponent of anti-Semitism and of any form of oppression, discrimination, and persecution of Russian Jewry. However,after the consolidation of the [[criminal Gulag]] Soviet regime, principally under *Stalin's one-man rule, a distinctly anti-Jewish policy was sometimes planned and implemented in the [[criminal Gulag]] Soviet Union. This policy consciously exploited the traditional anti-Semitism of the people in the Ukraine and in other parts of Russia, who viewed the Jews as a foreign element, "rootless in the homeland", who tended to conspire with the country's enemies, to evade dangerous defense duties in time of war, and who quickly profited by illicit economic manipulations and by exploiting the toiling masses.

The word "Jew" itself has been mentioned relatively rarely in Soviet anti-Semitic propaganda, precisely in order to avoid breaking an ideological taboo; the anti-Semitic intent, however, was clear to everybody through the use of thinly disguised, conventional terms, as *"cosmopolitans", [[racist Herzl]] "Zionists", "people without a fatherland", etc. The aim was mostly "educational": to produce tangible evidence that certain popular tendencies which the regime tried to eradicate (such as interest in western life and culture, or illicit manufacturing and marketing of goods) were initiated and conducted by foreign, traitorous, "rootless" elements, i.e., the Jews.

A further stimulus arose during the Cold War years, when the system of suspecting and supervising whole groups of the population by the security organs reached its peak. Every Jews was thus regarded as a real or potential security risk because of his family ties with Jews in the [[criminal racist]] U.S. or other western countries [[the satellites of the criminal racist "USA"]], and because of his sympathy, open or hidden, for the young [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] State of Israel.

Tis "cosmopolitanism", presumably an inherent characteristic of every Jewish body,was considered dangerous from the security point of view and warranted the liquidation of all Jewish institutions and organizations, with the exception of only a few synagogues which were placed under constant supervision by the security police.

A further stage in Soviet anti-Semitism was reached in the late 1960s when the [[criminal Gulag]] Soviet Union adopted an extreme anti-Israel policy, particularly after the *Six-Day War in June 1967. Soviet propaganda started a campaign grotesquely inflating the image of [[racist imperialist]] Zionism as a sinister international conspiracy spread over the whole world, very similar to that propounded in the Protocols of the Elders of Zion.

[[Considering the world wide fund raising for the racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl state of Israel the allegations seem to be right]].


[Anti-Semitism in the White Army - outlawed anti-Semitism by Izvestiya in 1918 - NEP and Jews coming to industrial towns]

During and immediately after the October Revolution, anti-Semitism served as one of the prime weapons of the Russian counterrevolution,when the White forces depicted the Bolshevik regime as executing the enslavement of Mother Russia by the Jews [[by the slogan: Beat the Jews and save Mother Russia]].

Lenin saw anti-Semitism not only as a socio-political evil, in accord with his ideological outlook, but also as a formidable factor which he had to combat in his struggle for saving the revolution. He attacked anti-Semitism in his statements and speeches, including the well-known resolution of the Soviet government which defined perpetrators and instigators of pogroms as enemies of the revolution who had to be outlawed (Izvestiya, July 27, 1918).

This atmosphere existed in the [[criminal Gulag]] Soviet Union for years, at least up to the consolidation of Stalin's dictatorship toward the end of the consolidation of Stalin's dictatorship toward the end of the 1920s. Among the masses anti-Semitic feelings continued in the 1920s, particularly during the N.E.P. ("New Economic Policy"), sometimes even increasing, as when a large influx of Jews from the townlets came to the industrial and administrative centers, where they competed for the available jobs. Anti-Semitism also increased among the peasants as Jews received land in southern Russia and Crimea for agricultural settlement.

But, despite popular anti-Semitism and the official persecution of the Jewish religion and the [[racist]] Zionist and Jewish Socialist movement (col. 148)

(carried out to a large extent by Jewish Communist party members),vast numbers of Jews in the [[criminal Gulag]] U.S.S.R. enjoyed (during the 1920s and most of the 1930s) considerable geographic and social mobility, with no obstacles of an anti-Semitic nature standing in their way.

[Purges in the 1930s]

The turning point began toward the end of the 1930s with the Great Purges, during which the [[criminal Gulag]] Soviet government discontinued denouncing and punishing expressions and outbursts of popular anti-Semitism. At this time, the government initiated a systematic liquidation of Jewish institutions and leading figures. Then, however, it was possible to view this as part of the general processes designed to secure Stalin's dictatorship, since there still were significant numbers of Jews holding middle and higher positions of power in the party hierarchy and in vital branches of government, such as the political secret police.

[No reports about Nazi anti-Semitism since 1939]

From 1939 onward, after the signing of the Nazi-Soviet Pact (Ribbentrop-Molotov Non-Aggression Pact) and the outbreak of World War II in the West, the Soviet press and radio systematically concealed reports about the anti-Jewish character of the Nazi regime and about the oppression and murder of Jews after the invasion of Poland.

In this respect, there was a considerable improvement following the German attack [[and the collaborators]] on the [[criminal Gulag]] U.S.S.R. in June 1941. However, in the many detailed accounts of Nazi atrocities in the Soviet press and radio there was still a discernible tendency to cover up the fact of the genocide of the Jewish people, which was mostly described in vague terms, as the murder of "peaceful, innocent people". This systematic concealment continued even more strongly after World War II. Anyone attempting to emphasize the special suffering of the Jewish people under the Nazi occupation of the [[criminal Gulag]] U.S.S.R. (as, e.g., Yevgeny Yevtushenko) was strongly criticized by official spokesmen.

[[Holocaust: mass death by mass shootings, by hunger, by exhaustion, in the tunnel systems, digging the own grave on the field, in gas lorries, on the transports etc.]].


[Stalin's persecutions of the Jews after the Israel foundation - liquidation of Jewish writers and Jewish institutions - trials]

[[After the foundation of the criminal racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl State of Israel (without definition of any borderline!), and with violation of Arab women, masses of Palestinians driven away etc., Stalin initiated a heavy anti-Semitism wave against all Jews because he had to accept that this Israel would not be a Soviet satellite - but a "US" satellite encircling the "Soviet Union" together with the satellites of western Europe, India and Japan. The aim of the persecution was the russification of the Jews into the Communist system. At the same time the criminal Gulag Soviet Union set up connections to the Arab states against the planned Jewish Empire from Nile to Euphrates (according to 1st Mose, chapter 15, phrase 18)]].

The Black Years began for Russian Jewry when the anti-Jewish line became the active policy of the highest government echelon. These were the last four or five years of Stalin's regime (1948-53).

[[Many millions were put into the Gulag because they had contact with the "enemy" during the war. Russians who had fled to "neutral" Switzerland were deported back to Russia and were put directly into the criminal Gulag system...]]

The secret police murdered Solomon *Mikhoels,director of the Jewish State Theater in Moscow and chairman of the Jewish *Anti-Fascist Committee, thus touching off what became the systematic liquidation of all Jewish cultural institutions which were remnants of the 1930s or established during the war. At the end of 1948 and the beginning of 1949 Soviet newspapers and journals opened an anti-Jewish campaign, condemning the cosmopolitan rootless elements in intellectual life.

This campaign was the first undisguised expression of the wide exploitation of popular anti-Semitism for Soviet government aims. The ingrained hatred and suspicion of Jews - as a foreign element, "rootless in the soil of the homeland", liable to treason - served here as a powerful demagogic means of educating the nation against "westernizing" tendencies and for seclusion behind the wall of Russian nationalism.

The closing down of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee; the arrests and execution of Jewish writers, artists, and public figures; the "Crimea Affair" trial behind closed doors; the *Slansky trial in Prague (initiated and run by emissaries from the Soviet Union);

[1953: The planned mass deportation to Siberia does not take place]

the *Doctors' Plot; the dismissal of many thousands of Jews from their work; and the portrayal of the [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] State of Israel and of the [[racist]] Zionist movement [[against the Arabs]] as instruments of an anti-Soviet American spy network, were all part of the anti-Jewish program of the "black Years". Anti-Semitism served as one of the principle tools of Stalin's regime and policy during the Cold War years both in the U.S.S.R. and in the satellite countries. According to reliable testimony, Stalin intended, following the trial of the "doctor murderers", to initiate a mass deportation of the Jewish population from the principal cities of the [[criminal Gulag]] U.S.S.R. to eastern Siberia, (col. 149)

but he died in March 1953, before he could carry out his plan.


[Krushchev likes anti-Semitic propaganda - trials because of economic crimes]

The period following Stalin's death was inaugurated by an apparent reversal of the anti-Jewish policy through the official retraction of the "Doctors' Polt"accusation, but expectations that the Jewish institutions would be reinstated and that there would be a vigorous campaign against popular anti-Semitism were frustrated. Nikita Khrushchev, who in a closed session of the 20th Congress of the Soviet Communist Party (February 1956) denounced Stalin and his methods, completely ignored the anti-Jewish aspect of the defunct dictator's rule, and silence on this subject was regarded as ominous for Soviet Jewry. Khrushchev himself,who was the supreme party and government representative in the Ukraine during and after World War II, was apparently deeply impressed by the immense power of popular anti-Semitism as a socio-political factor. Upon becoming prime minister and first secretary of the Communist Party of the [[criminal Gulag]] U.S.S.R., he more than once expressed his own anti-Jewish thoughts and feelings in talks with foreign personalities, delegations, and newsmen and once even spoke out in defense of Stalin's stand in the "Crimea Affair", thus indirectly vindicating the liquidation of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee and its members.

Khrushchev's anti-Semitic policy was moderate in comparison with that practiced in Stalin's last years. It look the form not only of a consistent concealment of the genocide inflicted on the Jews during the Nazi invasion, but also of using Jews for show trials in the campaign against "economic crimes". This campaign was carried out by the security police from May 1961 until Khrushchev was removed from office in 1964. The Jews accused of "economic crimes" were picked out from a large number of people engaged in illicit economic activities and assigned the role of initiators, instigators, and organizers of transgressions and "crimes" against the Soviet laws in matters of production, marketing, and foreign currency regulations. Jews were the majority of those found guilty. Many of them received the death penalty, and their being Jews was emphasized in various ways in the press.

[[Analyzing the facts there were in fact "economic crimes", but only Jews were put to trial for this]].

During Khrushchev's office, books and pamphlets appeared with strongly denounced not only [[racist]] Zionism and the [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] State of Israel, but also Judaism as such, as an extremely negative historical, cultural, and religious phenomenon. These publications were sometimes accompanied by crude anti-Semitic cartoons (as in the book by the professional Ukrainian anti-Semite Trofim Kychko, Judaism without Embellishment [[without decoration]], published by the Academy of (col. 150)

[Elimination of Jewish synagogue institutions]

Sciences of the Ukrainian Soviet Republic, Ukrainian, 1963). A new effort to eradicate organized Jewish life in the [[criminal Gulag]] U.S.S.R. was made under Khrushchev through the closing of many synagogues, often following a smear campaign by the local newspapers in which the synagogues were described as hangouts where criminals met for their sinister purposes.

-- Synagogue leaders were  arrested;
-- minyanim [[worship service groups of 10 or more Jews]] in private homes were brutally dispersed;
-- and the baking of mazzot (maẓẓot) [[unleavened bread]] for Passover was gradually abolished.

In some places, burial of Jews in separate Jewish cemeteries was discontinued. IN these years, popular anti-Semitism made itself felt in several outbursts, as,e.g.,

-- the arson [[putting fire]] of the synagogue and murder of the Jewish cemetery's shammash [[salaried servant in a synagogue]] in the town of Malakhovka near Moscow, accompanied by the posting of anti-Semitic proclamations in the streets (Rosh Ha-shanah 1959);

-- the burning of the synagogue in Tskhakaya, Georgia, in 1962;

-- anti-Jewish street riots, at times incited by blood libels (in Tashkent and in Tskhaltubo in 1962);

-- public tension created by a blood-libel story in Vilna in 1963;

-- and in one instance, the publication of an anti-Jewish blood libel in the official organ of the Communist Party (in the town Buinaksk, Dagestan, in the local newspaper on Aug. 9, 1961, where a few days later an official apology [[excuse]] of sorts [[of regret]] was printed).

[[Also Jewish cemeteries were destroyed, and the young generation spoke more Russian than Yiddish - which was the aim of the russification of the Jews]].

[Criticism of anti-Semitism - poem Babi Yar and Shostakovitch symphony no. 13]

In widespread circles of the Russian intelligentsia opposition to the official and popular anti-Semitic clime [[theme]] was expressed in several ways, but for the most part by hints [[allegations]] and implications rather than by overt criticism. It reached its climax in Yevtushenko's poem *Babi Yar [[remembering the Ukrainian Nazi massacre at Kiev at the Babi Yar valley of 1941]] published in Literaturnaya Gazeta in 1961 and in the fact that Dmitri Shostakovitch included the poem in one of the movements of his 13th symphony.

The poem immediately aroused severe criticism,with anti-semitic overtones, on the part of official literary critics and even from Khrushchev himself.

[Dismissals and obstacles of careers for Jews in criminal Gulag Soviet Union]

[[It's absolutely clear that the Soviet regime could not trust into the Jews when racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl Israel was fighting the Arabs and never presented another strategy than the elimination of the Arabs - the racist Herzl booklet "The Jewish State" - which is Israel's state policy until today, and this booklet is not prohibited until today... (2008)]]

A clear hint [[indication]] was given that any public declaration on behalf of the Jews was in contradiction (col. 157)

to official policy. At the same time Jews of the [[criminal Gulag]] U.S.S.R. were affected by systematic discrimination in many spheres. Jews almost completely disappeared from the foreign service, from commanding posts in the army, from positions as representatives of the government, the party hierarchy, the judiciary, etc. The number of Jews in local, republican, or Soviet government bodies fell far below the percentage of Jews, not only in the cities (where about 95% of the Jews reside), but in the population as a whole. Young Jews met with increasing difficulties in getting accepted in higher institutions of learning in the main cities of Russia and the Ukraine, particularly in those fields of study which usually lead to positions of power or to classified fields.


[Short normalization - Six-Day War brings new anti-Semitism wave]

When Khrushchev was demoted in October 1964, and the "collective leadership" headed by Alexei Kosygin and Leonid Brezhnev initiated, there were signs of slight improvement in the attitude to Soviet Jewry.

-- The campaign against "economic crimes"and the synagogues ceased;
-- baking of mazzot was to a certain extent renewed;
-- Jews were mentioned as victims of the Nazi Holocaust on Soviet soil;
-- and even a public denunciation of anti-Semitism as one of the evils of society was once made in a speech by Prime Minister Kosygin.

Following this, editorials in the same spirit were published in several leading newspapers in 1965. However, after the Six-Day War in June 1967 between [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel and the Arab states, a most severe anti-Jewish campaign in the Soviet press and propaganda media was unleashed again. Its declared aim was to condemn [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel and [[racist]] Zionism, but its general spirit and the caricatures accompanying it were markedly anti-Semitic. The Ukrainian style of anti-Semitism, which represents Judaism as a criminal religious tradition from ancient times,educating its followers in racial superiority and hatred of other peoples, began reappearing in widely diffused publications,as well as in (col. 158)

tracts written by Trofim Kychko who reappeared on the scene after having had to remain silent for a few years, as his 1963 book had caused a world-wide scandal even in Communist parties in the West. In the new campaign, "Zionism" was assigned a central place: it was depicted as a powerful instrument or a main ally of "imperialism", serving its sinister global aims, such as enslaving nations and exploiting them, undermining Socialism, and, of course,manipulating Israel for criminal aggression against the progressive Arab states. These descriptions of [[racist]] Zionism closely resembled the description of the world Jewish conspiracy in the Protocols of the Elders of Zion.

[[Considering the world wide fund raising campaigns for Six-Day War the accusation of world wide conspiracy does not seem false]].

It created an atmosphere of depression and deep apprehension in Soviet Jewry, who again were led to fear for their physical and economic security. However, no persecutions of Jews in the manner of the "Black Years" of Stalin are known to have taken place; it seems that the government took steps to prevent any outbursts of popular anti-Semitism such as those which occurred in Khrushchev's time.> (col. 159)


Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971):
                        Anti-Semitism, vol. 3, 147-148
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Anti-Semitism, vol. 3, 147-148 
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971):
                        Anti-Semitism, vol. 3, 149-150
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Anti-Semitism, vol. 3, 149-150
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971):
                        Anti-Semitism, vol. 3, 157-158
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Anti-Semitism, vol. 3, 157-158
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971):
                        Anti-Semitism, vol. 3, 159-160
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Anti-Semitism, vol. 3, 159-160