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[Mosad] Encyclopaedia Judaica

Emancipation of the Moses Fantasy Jews 07: Economic and social developments in Jesus Fantasy dominated Western and Central Europe 1815-1900

Moses Fantasy Jews in new professions - Moses Fantasy Jewish news agencies - politics - upper class - migration movements

from: History; In: [Mosad] Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 8

presented by Michael Palomino (2007 / 2019)

3 fantasies - but Mother Earth is REAL
Moses is a fantasy - nothing could be found of him. The proofs are in the book: The Bible unearthed - link. So, [[Moses Fantasy]] Jewry is a fantasy, and also the [[Moses Fantasy]] Jewish calendar is a fantasy. Also Jesus is a fantasy: nothing could be found, but it's a code fantasy with the numbers 3,12,13 and 33 - link. Therefore, Christiandom is a fantasy, and also the Christian calendar is a fantasy - and the Vatican is a criminal pedophile satanic drug money laundering bank mafia - link with videos - link with news. Also Muhammad is a fantasy: nothing could be found, and the name "Muhammad" was used only since 850, not in 600 - link. Therefore also the Muslim calendar is a fantasy. Peace and healings and instructions how to handle the planet are with Mother Earth - Mother Earth is REAL and everybody can learn it: http://www.med-etc.com - have a good day. - Michael Palomino, May 12, 2019



[The preconditions for emancipation: religious reforms]


Cultural differentiation also led to many innovations and changes in [[Moses Fantasy]] Jewish life. Exponents of the Reform trend admitted explicitly that it (col. 725)

was proposed to break down halakhic barriers - which were considered latter-day increments on the core of pure [[Moses Fantasy]] Jewish faith - between [[Moses Fantasy]] Jews and gentile. These included kashrut [[Moses Fantasy Jewish nutrition rules]], the prohibition on *mixed marriages, and many of the Sabbath laws; there was also a move to abolish mention of the hope for a Messiah and for the return to Zion [[hill in Jerusalem]], and the use of the Hebrew language in prayer. On the last points Zacharias *Frankel seceded from the radical majority of the Reform and demanded a more conservative and historical approach (see *Conservative Judaism). This created yet a new faced of [[Moses Fantasy]] Jewish religious and cultural activity in [[Jesus Fantasy]] Central Europe and later in the
[[Jesus Fantasy]] United States.

With the aim of throwing light on as well as learning about their own past, in order to present the case for emancipation and proposals for assimilation on a more respectful and firmer basis, the leading scholars of the *Wissenschaft des Judentums [[Science of [[Moses Fantasy]] Jewry]] gradually developed a broader and increasingly secularized approach to their research into the [[Moses Fantasy]] Jewish past. The historical work of I.M. *Jost is the first sustained modern attempt of this type by a [[Moses Fantasy]] Jew.

[[Moses Fantasy]] Jewish ideals underwent a reformation with the aim of serving and reorientating [[Moses Fantasy]] Jewish religious consciousness. Reform circles tended to regard the Messiah not as a person who would come to redeem Israel but as a universalist process to redeem humanity. On the basis of this conception Leopold Zunz called the European revolution of 1848 "the Messiah". A later development of this conception was the theory of [[Moses Fantasy]] Jewish "mission": Israel had to see itself as the guardians and carriers of pure monotheism for all mankind; in modern circumstances assimilation would only help to fulfill this duty. Pointing to the social, religious, and political failings of
[[Jesus Fantasy]] Christianity, such theorists considered their "purified" [[Moses Fantasy]] Judaism the destined vehicle for making monotheism paramount.> (col. 726)

[Moses Fantasy Jewish bankers - Moses Fantasy Jewish railways - Moses Fantasy Jewish noblemen]


Economic and social developments in West and Central
[[Jesus Fantasy]] Europe were different from those in Eastern [[Jesus Fantasy]] Europe. The upper strata of [[Moses Fantasy]] Jews in Central and Western Europe became wealthier with emancipation or semi-emancipation. The banking house of the *Rothschilds developed from its relatively modest origins at Frankfort on the Main to become the arbiter of international loans and monetary transactions in Europe in the first decades of the 19th century. Byron could exclaim:

Who hold the balance of the world? Who reign O'er congress, whether royalist or liberal? Who rouse the shirtless patriots of [[Jesus Fantasy]] Spain? (That make old Europe's journals squeak and gibber all). Who keep the world, both old and new, in pain Or pleasure? Who make politics run glibber all? [[Moses Fantasy]] Jew Rothschild, and his fellow-Christian, Baring ... (Don Juan, Canto 12, V).

In [[Jesus Fantasy]] France, the brothers *Pereire dealt in international *banking on a smaller scale. Gerson von *Bleichroeder was not only a banker of first magnitude in the third quarter of the 19th century, but also the financial adviser of [[Jesus Fantasy]] *Bismarck. These banking houses participated to a large degree in the financing of *railroad construction too, as did also [[Moses Fantasy]] Baron Maurice de *Hirsch. The importance and function of these international rival banks was already declining by the 1880s, when national banks and limited liability share banks took over much of the finance and financial activity in many countries. Many of these [[Moses Fantasy]] Jewish bankers and large scale contractors and merchants were ennobled, and thus moved even farther away from common [[Moses Fantasy]] Jews.

[Moses Fantasy Jews in free professions - Moses Fantasy Jewish news agencies - Moses Fantasy Jews at university and politics]

In Western and Central
[[Jesus Fantasy]] Europe, [[Moses Fantasy]] Jews also entered the free professions. In *medicine, they continued a long and much respected [[Moses Fantasy]] Jewish tradition. In other professions they were newcomers. In the legal profession they were new (see *Law) in the sense that [[Moses Fantasy]] Jews did not participate in general, state-regulated law practice until the emancipation, but they brought with them an old tradition of [[Moses Fantasy]] Jewish legal deliberation and practice. [[Moses Fantasy]] Jews entered newspaper publishing, editing, writing, and reporting (see *Journalism). The great news agencies of *Reuter in England and Bernhard *Wolff in [[Jesus Fantasy]] Germany were founded and directed by [[Moses Fantasy]] Jews.

Though university chairs were still withheld from [[Moses Fantasy]] Jews, they entered many of the lower ranks of the academic world. Many [[Moses Fantasy]] Jews contributed to literature; some apostates like Heinrich *Heine and Ludwig *Boerne were notable. Among apostates who gained prominence in *politics and social thought were Benjamin *Disraeli, Julius *Stahl, and Karl Marx.

[[Moses Fantasy]] Jews also entered politics, some gaining prominence, like Lionel Nathan Rothschild and David *Salomons in England, Adolphe Crémieux in France, and Gabriel *Riesser in Germany. [[Moses Fantasy]] Jews were active in the leadership of revolutionary movements, as Hermann *Jellinek and Adolf *Fischhof in the 1848 revolution of Austria. Many [[Moses Fantasy]] Jewish intellectuals were active in the 1848 revolution in Germany. The names of Ferdinand *Lassalle and Moses *Hess were prominent among revolutionary leaders.

[Moses Fantasy Jews in the "upper class"]

Many [[Moses Fantasy]] Jewesses of the upper circles were famous for their *salons and cultivated mode of life, both in Berlin and in Vienna at the time of the Vienna Congress. Later on, [[Moses Fantasy]] Jewish patrician social life became well known in Central and West
[[Jesus Fantasy]] European cities. At the same time, small merchants and peddlers, horse and cattle dealers, small scale moneylenders, and representatives of other lesser occupations were common among [[Moses Fantasy]] Jews in (col. 719)

[[Jesus Fantasy]] Bavaria, [[Jesus Fantasy]] Alsace-Lorraine, and above all, among immigrants coming from the eastern districts of [[Jesus Fantasy]] Germany and [[Jesus Fantasy]] Austria to the central districts.> (col. 720)

<In West and Central
[[Jesus Fantasy]] Europe developments in [[Moses Fantasy]] Jewish society took their direction from the upper circles connected with the centralist state structure. [[Moses Fantasy]] Jews contributed to its economy in loans and banking, industrial enterprise, and large scale international trading, in particular in the extreme west and northwest of Europe, at the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century. Up to the 1880s there was a progression toward banking and commercial undertakings on an increasingly greater scale, toward entry in considerable numbers into the free professions and (col. 720)

general society, and toward political and social leadership.> (col. 721)


[[Moses Fantasy]] Jewish migration in Europe had changed direction by the end of the 18th century of even somewhat earlier - and up to the 1890s. It now went from east to west, but occurred mainly within the borders of states. In
[[Jesus Fantasy]] Russia, it moved from the densely populated parts of Lithuania and [[Jesus Fantasy]] *Belorussia to the more thinly populated districts of the [[Jesus Fantasy]] *Ukraine. In [[Jesus Fantasy]] Germany, it moved from the Posen (*Poznan) districts to the center and west of the country, filling gaps created by the apostasy of the [[Moses Fantasy]] Jewish upper strata and veteran families. In Austria, it went from Galicia to the regions of [[Jesus Fantasy]] Vienna and [[Jesus Fantasy]] Hungary; in [[Jesus Fantasy]] France from Alsace-Lorraine to the center and west of the country. [[Moses Fantasy]] Jews from [[Jesus Fantasy]] Bavaria, as well as other districts of [[Jesus Fantasy]] Germany, in particular up to the unification of [[Jesus Fantasy]] Germany in 1870, emigrated to the United States and some to England.

All these immigrants in their new places of settlement met with the manifestations and results of the industrial and commercial revolution in
[[Jesus Fantasy]] Europe. They also gradually absorbed, in layer after layer of immigration, the new trends of cultural adaptation and assimilation already at work among the older communities there. The Sephardi communities of [[Jesus Fantasy]] England and the [[Jesus Fantasy]] United States were pioneering in this process. Their members became the upper layer of [[Moses Fantasy]] Jewish society in these countries.> (col. 720)

[Attacks: Intellectual Moses Fantasy Jews attacking the old fashioned Moses Fantasy Jewish community life - assimilation without Moses Fantasy Jewish community life]

<[[Moses Fantasy]] Jewish autonomy all this time [[during 19th century]] was being attacked, both from without and from within, not only in its form as a corporation, but also as a bastion of religious and social separatism. The early [[Moses Fantasy]] Jewish enlightenment circles regarded the community establishment as an institution for enforcement of Orthodoxy and meddling in their personal lives which they did not intend to suffer. To intellectual dilettantes of means, of the type of Isaac *D'Israeli, the father of Benjamin, community service was a nuisance. As he declared in 1813 to those who had elected him parnas of the community,

A person who has always lived out of the sphere of your observation, of retired habits of life, who can never unite in your public worship, because as now conducted it disturbs instead of exciting religious emotions, a circumstance of general acknowledgment, who has only tolerated some part of your ritual, willing to concede all he can in those matters which he holds to be indifferent; such as a man, with but a moderate portion of honor and understanding, never can accept the solemn functions of an Elder in your congregation, and involve his life and distract his business pursuits not in temporary but permanent duties always repulsive to his feelings (in: C. Roth: Anglo-[[Moses Fantasy]] Jewish Letters (1938), 238, no. 115).

This is an expression not only of D'Israeli's personal taste and indolence, but also of the trend toward assimilation and a renunciation of [[Moses Fantasy]] Jewish social cohesion and cultural tradition. With increased assimilation, such tendencies against autonomy became sharper and more meaningful. For people who appreciated the way of life and habits of the society of their environment, the forms of [[Moses Fantasy]] Jewish prayer, burial and marriage customs even looked ludicrous.

[Consistories by Napoleon is under-fire by the Moses Fantasy Jewish intellectuals - and more developments]

Despite these forces undermining the organized [[Moses Fantasy]] Jewish community, it not only continued to exist in the West but (col. 722)

even gained new strength and an articulate structure there through the system of consistories (see *Consistory) imposed by
[[Jesus Fantasy]] Napoleon, who was interested in utilizing the community organs as functionaries of the state. This situation continued with some changes in most of continental Western [[Jesus Fantasy]] Europe.

[since 1838: British Moses Fantasy Jews are steering the Moses Fantasy Jews of the whole Empire - establishment of a chief rabbi and of the "United Synagogue"]

In England the *Board of Deputies of British [[Moses Fantasy]] Jews began to act on behalf of the whole of the
[[Jesus Fantasy]] British Empire from the time of the chairmanship of Moses *Montefiore (1838). The [[Moses Fantasy]] Jewish organizational framework in [[Jesus Fantasy]] England - and, patterned on it, in many of the dominions - acquired an even more authoritative position in the second half of the 19th century with the establishment of the authority of the chief rabbi and with the organization of the rigid [[Moses Fantasy]] *United Synagogue.> (col. 723)

["Spring of nations" of 1848 - Moses Fantasy Jews between the nations not knowing in which nation should assimilate]

<"The spring of nations" of the 1848 revolution introduced a new complication and an added tinge to the trends of assimilation and acculturation. [[Moses Fantasy]] Jews in Prague for example found themselves caught between the crosscurrents of German and Czech nationalism. In *Budapest they were caught in the triangle of German, Magyar [[Hungarian]], and Slav national demands, and in Galicia in the triangle of German, Polish, and, later on, Ukrainian demands. The upsurge of national consciousness gave rise to animosity againt [[Moses Fantasy]] Jews. The
[[Jesus Fantasy]] Czechs resented the assimilation of [[Moses Fantasy]] Jews into the [[Jesus Fantasy]] German sector, while many Slav nationalities contended their assimilation into the Magyar [[Hungarian]] group. Hence from now on the question whether to assimilate or not to assimilate was joined with the problem into which nationality to assimilate.> (col. 726)

[since 1850 approx.: Many orthodox Jewish groups - 1880s: right to leave the local community - Austrittsgemeinde with own conferences and synods of Moses Fantasy rabbis]

<In Central
[[Jesus Fantasy]] Europe, religious and social fragmentation led to many breaches within the [[Moses Fantasy]] Jewish community, mainly brought about by the Orthodox wing which felt itself threatened by the growing predomination of *Reform elements in [[Moses Fantasy]] Jewish society.

By the 1880s the Orthodox sector achieved in both Hungary and Germany - ironically with the help of liberals in Parliament - the right for every individual [[Moses Fantasy]] Jew to leave his local community. It resulted in the institution and ideology of the Austrittsgemeinde [[exit community]] (see also Samson Raphael *Hirsch; Isaac Dov *Bamberger). These religious and cultural orientations led to new forms of linkage within the state of the Reform and Orthodox sectors, and, in
[[Jesus Fantasy]] Hungary, also of the neolog trends (see *Neology). They convened their own conferences and synods of rabbis (see below).> (col. 723)


[Haskalah (Enlightenment movement) in Central and Western Jesus Fantasy Europe]

<In Central and Western
[[Jesus Fantasy]] Europe its influence bifurcated in the often convergent directions of the *Wissenschaft des Judentums [[science on Moses Fantasy Jewry]] on the one hand, and of Reform [[Moses Fantasy]] Judaism on the other (see also Abraham *Geiger; Leopold *Zunz; Samuel *Holdheim; Aaron *Chorin). (col. 725)


[[By the emancipation and assimilation of Moses Fantasy Jews, Jesus Fantasy Christian racism in combination with Jesus Fantasy Christian nationalism created a wave of new anti-Semitism, and the press media made it's profit with it legally. The racist Jesus Fantasy Christian church is the main force for anti-Semitism in the world, but was never blamed for it until today, and the criminal racist Fantasy Bible with it's new Fantasy testament blaming Moses Fantasy Jews in general is still legal until now (2019). Before 1945, anti-Semitism of Muhammad Fantasy Muslim states never was so strong than anti-Semitism of racist "Christian" countries...]]

With the growing democratization of political processes in various European
[[Jesus Fantasy]] states to the west of the Russian border, and the emergence to political influence of the mass of elementary school graduates, [[Moses Fantasy]] Jews were to encounter in most of the countries of their emancipation mounting popular prejudice and a new phenomenon in the influence of the stereotype, whereby the press, and popular art and literature destined for the masses, presented various social manifestations through the medium of clichés and images. The stereotype image of the [[Moses Fantasy]] Jew in modern times was based on and bore the imprint of the baneful image of the Middle Ages, but is representation by various groups was fashioned by their own fears. To conservative and rightwing groups the [[Moses Fantasy]] Jew had become by the 1860s the prototype of the wicked arch-innovator, and [[Moses Fantasy]] Jews were stigmatized as the destructive bacteria of the social web.

To the left-wing radical he appeared the evil representative of the capitalist spirit, the arch-schemer and arch-exploiter. The common bond of the medieval anti-[[Moses Fantasy]] Jewish legacy let these opposed stereotypes coexist and even complement each other.> (col. 726)

[1840: Blood libel case of Muhammad Fantasy Damascus shocking assimilated Moses Fantasy Jews - return to Moses Fantasy Jewry]

The blood libel case in [[Muhammad Fantasy Muslim]] Damascus (the *Damascus Affair) in 1840 shocked [[Moses Fantasy]] Jews everywhere, not only because of the cruelties inflicted on the victims and absurdity of the charge but also and  mainly because they saw a recruddescence of an extreme medieval-type expression of [[Moses Fantasy]] Jew hatred. It led Moses *Hess in his Rome und Jerusalem (1862) to reject his own assimilationist and revolutionary past. His sense of isolation and humiliation caused by the anti-Jewish attitude of the left-wing Marxist radicals brought him back to a deep feeling of the historic continuity of the [[Moses Fantasy]] Jewish nation and to place great hopes for its future on its land. Hess had a much greater impact than commonly accorded him: his response fitted the challenge felt by many [[Moses Fantasy]] Jews in West and Central
[[Jesus Fantasy]] Europe.

The historian Heinrich *Graetz was deeply moved and influenced by this work. In 1863 he wrote to Hess:

"I am now in a state to let you know smoething that will interest you. The plan of settlement in Erez Israel [[Ereẓ Israel]] - or Yemot ha-Mashi'ah (Mashi'aḥ) [Hebrew in the original] - is beginning to crystallize."

In 1870 he communicated to Hess an idea of "a very cultured Englishman, a Christian"; Graetz was not permitted to communicate the whole idea, but could noly ask "whether in
[[Jesus Fantasy]] France, in which [[Moses Fantasy]] Jews already have military training, and there are men of courage among them, there may be found about 50 that could become a kind of gendarmerie. They will find excellent employment but they must bring with them a certain measure of [[Moses Fantasy]] Jewish patriotism. ... Please look into this matter and tell me your opinion" (published in: Zevi (Ẓevi) (Heinrich) Graetz: Darkhei ha-Historyah ha-Yehudit, ed. by Ettinger (1969), 268, 272).> (col. 727)

[Mosad] Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: History,
                      vol. 8, col. 719-720
[Mosad] Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: History, vol. 8, col. 719-720
[Mosad] Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: History,
                      vol. 8, col. 721-722
[Mosad] Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: History, vol. 8, col. 721-722
[Mosad] Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: History,
                      vol. 8, col. 723-724
[Mosad] Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: History, vol. 8, col. 723-724
[Mosad] Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: History,
                      vol. 8, col. 725-726
[Mosad] Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: History, vol. 8, col. 725-726
[Mosad] Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: History,
                      vol. 8, col. 727-728
[Mosad] Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: History, vol. 8, col. 727-728

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