Kontakt / contact      Hauptseite / page principale / pagina principal /
                home    zurück / retour / indietro / astrás / back

Encyclopaedia Judaica

Criminal and racist Zionist Youth "Pioneer" Movement He-Halutz
("The Pioneer")

The first "pioneer" youth movements since 1881 and after the Ussishkin call of 1905 - migration obligation in Ze'irei Zion movement since 1906 - Jewish Legion - conferences and resolutions since 1917 - Trumpeldor's militarism, presidency, and fast death in 1920 - "pioneer" emigration over the Black Sea and Caucasus - ideology resolution of 1923 for anti-capitalist and kibbutz line - "training farms" - forbidden He-Halutz in the "SU" since 1928 - "Bendin" and "105" wild emigration - Poland - illegal aliyah since 1934 by He-Halutz - He-Halutz in Lithuania, Latvia, Romania, Germany, CSSR, "USA"

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): He-Halutz (criminal
                and racist Zionist Youth "Pioneer" Movement),
                vol. 8, col. 248: The Yelizavetgrad branch of He-Halutz
                (Ukraine), the federation of pioneering youth movements,
                1918. Courtesy Central Archives, Jerusalem.
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): He-Halutz (criminal and racist Zionist Youth "Pioneer" Movement),
vol. 8, col. 248: The Yelizavetgrad branch of He-Halutz (Ukraine), the federation of pioneering
youth movements, 1918. Courtesy Central Archives, Jerusalem.

from: He-Halutz (Ḥalutz); In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 8

presented by Michael Palomino (2008)

Teilen / share:


Racist Zionist madness says that Jewry would be a "nation" which is never possible because Jewry is a religion. Add to this the Arabs were never asked if a "Jewish State" would be built. But many Jews believed the Jewish racist Zionists and warmongers, called "Zionists" with it's racist Herzl booklet "The Jewish State". The racist Zionist Jewish leaders abused the Jewish youth with "youth movements" like the youth "pioneer" movement He-Halutz for their war purposes. In the article it's not clear if it is a movement or an organization. "Pioneers" can be turned into soldiers easily...]].

<HE-HALUTZ (ḤALUTZ), an association of [[racist Zionist]] Jewish youth whose aim was to train its members to settle on the land in Israel [[Palestine until 1948]]. The original meaning of the Hebrew word is the vanguard that leads the host on its advance (Josh. 6:13).

[["Pioneers" can be turned into soldiers easily...]]

Origin of the Movement

[Two Jewish settlement movements founded after the 1881 pogroms: Bilu and Am Olam]

The idea of He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) was conceived during the crisis that overtook Russian Jewry in the aftermath of the 1881 pogroms [[the czar was murdered and the Jews in general were blamed for it. The pogroms provoked Jewish self-defense movements]]. This awakening was influenced indirectly by the Russian revolutionary movement, which called upon the intelligentsia to "go out to the people". Two of the societies that formed at this time - *Bilu, which called for settlement in Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]], and *Am Olam, which advocated settlement in the [[criminal racist]] United States - were pioneer movements that imposed the concepts of "self-fulfillment" upon their members and planned for collective or cooperative settlement.

[Ussishkin in 1905 calling for spade and plow service in Palestine for 3 years - some "pioneer" youth movements for Palestine]

[["Pioneers" can be turned into soldiers easily...]]

At the beginning of the 20th century, a Jewish youth movement made up of small groups gradually came into being. Menahem *Ussishkin gave impetus to this development in 1905, when he called for the establishment of

"a general Jewish worker's organization made up of unmarried young people of sound body and spirit. Each member would be committed to settle for a period of three years in Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]], where he would render army service for the Jewish people, his weapons being not thee sword and the rifle, but the spade and the plow" (in Our Program).

Such movements arose under different names in various countries:

-- in America He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz), founded by Eliezer *Joffe in 1905 (see below);
-- in Russia, a number of societies, among them Bilu'im Hadashim (Ḥadashim) (new Bilu'im) and He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz).

They were encouraged by the Erez Israel workers, who called for the settlement of halutzim (ḥalutzim) [[pioneers, which can be easily converted into soldiers...]] (A.D. Gordon in 1904, Joseph *Vitkin in 1905, the Ha-Po'el ha-Za'ir (ha-Ẓa'ir) in 1908, etc.) and sent emissaries abroad to urge young Jews to settle in Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]].

[Racist Zionist Ze'irei Zion movement with settling obligation in Palestine since 1906]

The *Ze'irei Zion (Ẓe'irei Zion) [["Youth of Zion"]] movement included in its platform "the organization of halutzim (ḥalutzim) [["pioneers"]] and their training for aliyah [[emigration to Palestine]]". In the summer of 1906 the Ze'irei Zion (Ẓe'irei Zion) held a conference of halutzim (ḥalutzim) [["pioneers"]] (the Bilu'im Hadashim (Ḥadashim)) that decided to impose upon the members of the movement the goal of settling in Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]] and engaging in manual or intellectual labor in groups or as individuals, as well as studying Hebrew and Arabic.

During the 11th [[racist]] Zionist Congress in Vienna (1913), Ze'irei (Ẓe'irei) Zion decided to establish a center for Russia and Poland and to include among its tasks "the training of halutzim (ḥalutzim) [[pioneers]] who are contemplating settlement in Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]]. At the conference of Ze'irei (Ẓe'irei) Zion in Russia (Vilna, April 1914), Eliahu Munchik, an emissary from Erez Israel, spoke (col. 247)

on aliyah (immigration [[to Palestine]]) and halutziyyut (ḥalutziyyut) (pioneering), and the conference decided to organize groups and establish a mutual aid fund for them.

[Almost complete standstill of racist Zionist youth "pioneering" movements during WW I - call of Ben-Gurion and Ben-Zvi in 1917 - youth He-Halutz "pioneers" in the "Jewish Legion"]

During World War I the movement came to a standstill except in [[racist czarist]] Russia and the [[criminal racist]] United States. In the [[criminal racist]] U.S. [[racist Zionist leaders]] David *Ben-Gurion and Izhak *Ben-Zvi attempted to establish a pioneering movement. In their Yiddish pamphlet, "Printcipen un Öyfgaben" ("Principles and Tasks", 1917), the guidelines were formulated as follows:

"To create and organize the first workers' army for Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]]" and to impose upon each member the obligation of "settling in Erez Israel when the need arises".

A few hundred [[racist Zionist manipulated]] youngsters joined the organization. At the end of 1917, when the call came to join the *Jewish Legion, these members of He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) in the [[criminal racist]] U.S. volunteered for military service and went to Erez Israel together with the other volunteers.

[[This is the truth about "pioneers": "Pioneers" can be turned into soldiers easily...]]


[Racist Zionist article about racist Zionist "pioneers" by Ben-Zvi - conference in Petrograd in May 1917 with resolution for "pioneering education" and for setting up of groups as a base for "national life" - "pioneering" groups after Balfour Declaration of 1917]

The February Revolution of 1917 opened up new possibilities for [[racist]] Zionist activities in Russia. An article on He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) by Ben-Zvi, published in Yevreyskaya Zhizn [[Yidd.: Russian Yevreyskaya Yiddish Jews]] in April 1917, made a profound impression upon [[racist Zionist manipulated]] Jewish youth. The second conference of Ze'irei Zion (Ẓe'irei Zion), which convened in Petrograd in May 1917, adopted a resolution calling for

"the education [[manipulation]] of the youth to the ideas of halutziyyut (ḥalutziyyut) [["pioneering"]] and the organization of He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) groups to serve as the basis of [[racist Zionist]] Jewish national life in Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]]".

The [[Zionist manipulated]] *Balfour Declaration, issued in November 1917, greatly accelerated the process, and groups of halutzim (ḥalutzim) [["pioneers"]] developed in Russia, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Galicia, Bessarabia, etc. At first the various groups had no connection with one another, but gradually they became part of a national [[racist Zionist]] organization and eventually a worldwide [[racist Zionist]] movement.

[Founding convention in Kharkov in 1918 - split between idealists and materialists]

In January 1918, the founding convention of the Russian He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) met in Kharkov. At this conference, a controversy, which dominated the movement for a number of years, arose between the "idealists", who argued that He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) should serve as a vanguard and assume tasks of outstanding importance for the [[racist]] Zionist movement, and the "materialists", who saw the movement simply as the organization of Jewish workers planning to settle in Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]].

In the spring of 1918, Joseph *Trumpeldor joined the organization of He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz).

[Racist Zionist conference with He-Halutz for emigration to Palestine in 1918]

In July and September 1918, conferences of [[racist]] Zionist organizations and of He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) groups were held, and it was decided that the movement would be [[racist]] Zionist but nonpartisan and would accept for membership Jewish youth over 18 who recognized Hebrew as their national language and were preparing for settlement in Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]]. Trumpeldor formulated these decisions in a Russian-language pamphlet entitled He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) [["The Pioneer"]], which was widely distributed in Russia.

[["Pioneers" can be turned into soldiers easily...]]

[He-Halutz conference in Moscow at 6 January 1919 - racist Zionist Trumpeldor wants "military He-Halutz" - racist Zionist general principles - racist Zionist Trumpeldor elected president of He-Halutz]

On Jan. 6, 1919, the first conference of the movement, in which representatives of of 23 (col. 248)

groups in central Russia and Belorussia took part, took place in Moscow. Trumpeldor, who had lost hope of creating a Jewish army of 100,000 men in Russia [[which should pass through the Caucasus to Palestine]], called for the establishment of a "military He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz)" of 10,000 men to replace the [[racist Empire¨] British garrison in Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]]. The conference decided upon a series of general principles:

-- He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) is a nonpartisan association of workers who have resolved to settle in Erez Israel in order to live by their own labor, rejecting exploitation of others' work; [[so, they say no to slavery which is proposed in the racist Herzl booklet "The Jewish State"]]

-- it will train its members for life in Erez Israel, transport them there, and facilitate their absorption in the country; [[this is an illusion because this "country" does not exist, and racist Herzl Israel was founded without borderlines and does not exist by this until now]]

-- its final goal is the establishment of a sovereign Jewish nation in Erez Israel; [[this is a direct war declaration against the whole Arab world]]

-- it accepts the authority of the [[racist]] Zionist Congress. [[by this the most racist Zionist world institution becomes the head of He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) and it's clear that the "pioneer" ("he-halutz") will be the army of this congress]].

[[The Arabs are not mentioned...]]

[[Racist Zionist leader]] Trumpeldor was elected president and asked to go to Erez Israel to prepare the ground for the absorption of halutzim (ḥalutzim) [["pioneers" who can be turned into soldiers easily]]. An executive body was elected and took up its seat in Minsk.

[Uncoordinated He-Halutz emigration movement to Palestine since 1919 - emigration routes by the Black Sea or by the Caucasian Mountains - death of Trumpeldor in the fight 1920]

In spite of the chaotic conditions prevailing in Russia during the civil war, He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) entered upon a period of rapid development. A wave of unorganized emigration began; it was made up of various groups of halutzim (ḥalutzim) who set out on the way to Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]] along different routes - across the Rumanian [[Romanian]], Polish, Lithuanian, and Latvian borders and by way of the Black Sea and the Caucasian Mountains. The number of groups associated with the center grew to 120.

When Trumpeldor fell at *Tel Hai (Ḥai) (March 1920) the movement lost its natural leader, but he became the symbol of its ideals, as he had realized the aims of He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) - settling in Erez Israel, working there, and being prepared to give one's life in its defense.

[[It seems strange that the racist Zionist madness went on after Trumpeldor's death. Every Jews saw what was waiting in Palestine for the Jews: a war trap named Middle East Conflict]].

[No official approval of the racist Zionist "pioneer" He-Halutz movement in criminal Gulag SU since 1921 - "training farms" with expelled Jews from the Soviet system]

For He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz), the consolidation of the [[criminal Gulag]] Soviet regime meant the beginning of a process that was to end in the total suppression of the movement. The Yevsektsiya (the Jewish "section" in the Communist Party) played a role in this process. When the He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) center, then in Moscow, applied to the authorities for official approval of its activities, it received the reply (March 18, 1918) that there was no need for official approval as long as the activities of He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) conformed to the laws of the [[criminal Gulag]] Soviet Union. This rather equivocal reply (which at the time did not apply to the Ukraine and Belorussia) provided a basis, however uncertain, for the continued existence of the movement. In many places, its training farms dovetailed with the official efforts of "productivization" of those Jews who had lost their source of livelihood, and sometimes He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) was even officially encouraged to continue these training activities. The hasty and unorganized aliyah of halutzim (ḥalutzim), however, adversely affected the development of the movement.

[He-Halutz conference of October 1920 with another call for "pioneer" training and emigration to Palestine - branches in Ukraine with a "Volga Gurd" and "Brenner Work Battalion"]

In October 1920 another conference of He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz), which took place at Kharkov, emphasized the need for training halutzim (ḥalutzim) [["pioneers, which can be turned into soldiers easily]] before their move to Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]]. During the following years while the Jewish shtetl was rapidly being destroyed [[by industrialization in Russia and attractive jobs for Jews in the new Russian industry]], the movement continued to develop, even though many branches, as well as entire areas, were out of touch with the center.

In Odessa, for example, a special center for the Ukraine functioned independently. One group that had a considerable influence upon training of halutzim (ḥalutzim) in the early 1920s was the Volga Guard at Saratov, which later moved to Yartsevo, near Moscow, and established the J.H. *Brenner Work Battalion.

[Arrested He-Halutz delegates at the He-Halutz conference of 1922 - training farm Tel Hai in the Crimea - split between He-Halutz militarists and pacifists]

In January 1922, the third He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) conference was held at Kharkov and was attended by delegates from Russia, the Ukraine, and Belorussia. Its participants were arrested and continued their deliberations in jail, but He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) continued its work. At the end of the year a training farm named Tel Hai (Tel Ḥai) was opened up in the Crimea.

At this juncture, the first signs of a split in the ranks of He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) made their appearance: some of its members decided to adapt "He-Halutz" to the state ideology in order (col. 249)

to achieve official approval of its activities; others, however, felt that He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) should retain its nonpartisan character and disassociate itself from Communism.

[Ideology resolutions of 1923: He-Halutz is anti-capitalist working class movement - kibbutz ideology for the "training groups" - split in August 1923 in class warfare group and national group]

In April 1923 the Council of He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) met in Moscow and decided upon program guidelines, which included a paragraph defining He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) as an organic part of the Jewish and international working class and, recognizing the inevitability of the class war, declaring that the movement would fight against capitalism in all its forms. Another paragraph stipulated that members who "oppose the idea of the kevuzah (kevuẓah) [[kibbutz]] and who wish to plan their lives as members of a moshav ovedim [[workers' settlement]] would not be admitted to the training groups."

These resolutions caused an uproar in He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) and a bitter controversy broke out. Ben-Gurion, who was in the [[criminal Gulag]] Soviet Union at the time visiting its agricultural exhibition as a delegate of the *Histadrut [[Worker's Union in Palestine]], made an unsuccessful attempt to settle the dispute. In August 1923, when the He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) statute was given official sanction, the movement split into two factions: the "legal" faction, advocating class warfare and a collective way of life, and the "illegal" faction, which regarded itself as a national Jewish workers' movement.

The legal [[class warfare]] He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) strove to utilize the limited possibilities deriving from its status. Official branches were opened in various places (excluding, however, the Ukraine and Belorussia, where the official approval did not apply); a struggle was conducted, in public, with the Jewish communist activists, and permission was obtained for the publication of a journal (He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) [["The Pioneer"]]), which printed 3,000 copies and contained news from Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]].

[Rites of He-Halutz: celebrations - fight against assimilationists - more "training farms" set up]

Members of He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) participated in official celebrations and holidays (May Day, the anniversary of the Revolution), displaying [[racist]] Zionist slogans and singing [[racist]] Zionist songs.

[[The Arabs are not asked. They should be driven away...]]

He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) also joined the organizations designed to encourage the agricultural settlement of Jews in Russia (Ozet) and struggled inside these organizations against the design to turn them into instruments against aliyah [[emigration to Palestine]]. More training farms such as Ma'yan in the Crimea and Zangen near Moscow were established.

The illegal faction of He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) carried on its activities underground and also succeeded in establishing training farms of its own, such as Mishmar in the Crimea (1924) and Bilu in Belorussia (1925). At the end of 1925 the factions had a total membership of 14,000.

[Economic crisis in Palestine in 1926 and returnees since 1926 - more Jews settling in criminal Gulag "SU" -  both parts He-Halutz declared as illegal since 1928 - emigration or purges]

The year 1926, however, was a turning point for the worse. News of the economic crisis in Palestine had a depressing effect, and many halutzim (ḥalutzim) [["Pioneers"]] - including some who had been members of the Work Battalion - returned from Palestine as disappointed men. At the same time the settlement of Jews on the land in the [[criminal Gulag]] U.S.S.R. boasted considerable achievements, and it seemed to many that this was the proper way to the large-scale "productivization" of Russian Jewry.

The Soviet authorities now persecuted both factions of He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz). No aid was forthcoming from the [[racist]] Zionist movement or the He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) movement abroad. In March 1928 the government canceled the approval it had given to one faction, and both were now illegal. The training farms of He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) were disbanded and their members had only one course left - to go to Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]] remained in prison or exile, some to be liquidated during the mass purges (among them Shemu'el Schneurson, one of the leaders of the underground He-Halutz who had returned from Erez Israel in 1926 to take part in the underground work of the movement).
[Russian He-Halutz ambassadors in other states by migration]

The He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) movement in Russia affected the development of the movement far beyond the confines of (col. 250)

the country. Hundreds of halutzim (ḥalutzim) [["Pioneers"]] from Soviet Russia who passed through Poland, Rumania [[Romania]], Lithuania, Latvia, etc., on their way to Erez Israel were of significant help to the movement in those countries. The final severance [[split]] of the He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) movement in Russia from the outside world and from Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]] was one of the severest blows dealt to the [[racist]] Zionist Movement.

[[The Arabs are not asked. The Arabs don't count for the racist Zionists...]]

[Criminal and racist Zionist He-Halutz movement in] Poland

[Poland becomes European He-Halutz center since 1921 - world He-Halutz federation in Warsaw]


The movement in Poland began at the same time as in [[racist czarist]] Russia (at the beginning of the century), but only at the end of the war did it become a mass movement. The growth of He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) in Poland was greatly encouraged by the [[Zionist manipulated]] Balfour Declaration [[of 1917]] and the renewal of ties with Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]], particularly with the workers' parties, as well as by the pauperization of the Jewish masses and the appearance of a young and inspired leadership that searched for a way to Jewish national freedom and the creation of a new Jewish society.


At the same time, the movement spread all over Europe, as well as overseas. In 1921 He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) conferences took place in no less than 25 countries in eastern, Central, and western Europe, the countries of North Africa and the Middle East, North and South America, and South Africa.

With the suppression of all [[racist]] Zionist activities in the [[criminal Gulag]] Soviet Union, the center of the movement was resituated in Poland. During the 12 [[racist]] Zionist Congress (Carlsbad 1921), the He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) organizations held their first world conference and decided to establish a world federation with headquarters in Warsaw.


[General program of He-Halutz: racist Zionist pioneers should migrate to Palestine - emigration group by group from Poland: "Bendin" group - "the 105" group]

The program of He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) consisted of three basic, interdependent points:

-- organization,
-- training (hakhsharah) [["pioneer training"]]
-- and aliyah [[emigration to Palestine]].

The last was the most difficult to achieve, as the [[racist Empire]] British military authorities in Palestine were largely anti-Zionist and discouraged Jewish immigration [[because Jewry is a religion and never a nation]]. It was also deemed impossible to enter the country illegally by eluding the border control, since peace had not yet been restored and there were no land or sea communications. In spite of these obstacles, individual immigrants and small groups succeeded in entering the country; the groups grew in size and eventually the road of aliyah lay open.

The first group to enter Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]] in this manner was the "Bendin" group, consisting of six halutzim (ḥalutzim) [["pioneers"]]. They left Poland in the summer of 1918 and made their way through Odessa and Constantinople, finally reaching Jaffa on Dec. 5, 1918, after they had risked their lives in a daring and arduous trip.

A second group left Radom in November 1918. Originally numbering 15 persons, they were joined en route by 90 halutzim (ḥalutzim) [["pioneers"]]. Their trip entered [[racist]] Zionist history as "the 105". Without passports and visas they passed through Czechoslovakia, Austria, Serbia, Croatia, and Italy, and time and again they were arrested, imprisoned, and beaten. Finally they reached Naples, where, lacking entry visas, they were unable to board a shop for Palestine. It was only after great efforts were made in their behalf (in which the author Axel Munthe, then a resident of Capri, also took part) that London authorized the issue of visas. When they landed in Egypt, they were imprisoned by the [[racist Empire]] British military authorities, who suspected them of being "Bolsheviks". [[The Marxist He-Halutz program was like this]]. Finally, after six months of hardship, they reached Palestine. On their arrival by train from Egypt during Passover 1919, they were welcomed by almost the entire population of Tel Aviv. "The 105" had in fact inaugurated a new wave of immigration - the Third *Aliyah.

[[Considering all these obstacles the migration to Palestine should rather stop, but racist Zionist madness is going an other direction and leading more Jews into the Middle East war trap...]]

[New emigration wave (third "aliyah") - new He-Halutz "training" farms in Poland]

The reports of the arrival of the "Bendin" and Radom groups gave new encouragement to the movement in Poland. Branches were organized and training programs instituted in hundreds of towns and cities. Training was divided into two parts:
-- ideological training ([[racist]] Zionism and social sciences, history and geography of Erez Israel, and Hebrew)
-- and practical training (vocational education, primarily in agriculture).

[[In this "vocational education" - one can admit - was also military education headed against the Arabs]].

Many halutzim (ḥalutzim) [["pioneers", who can be turned into soldiers easily]] were employed by (col. 251)

Jewish and gentile landowners (especially in Galicia) as individuals or in groups; but in the main the training was conducted on farms established and maintained by He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz). The largest and best known of the dozens of such farms were at Grochow (near Warsaw), Czesstochowa, Grodno, Suwalki, and Bendzin. There were also training facilities in quarries (the best known of them, in Klosow, Volhynia), sawmills, textile factories, etc. The expansion of the training program was followed by an increase in aliyah.

[Russian racist Zionist He-Halutz members passing through Poland - emigrants' passports by racist Zionist Palestine Office - Russian He-Halutz members brought back go the border since 1921 and intervention - Russian farms in Poland]

In 1918 Russian halutzim (ḥalutzim) [["pioneers", who can be turned into soldiers easily]]  on their way to Palestine began entering Poland illegally. At first they came in small groups, but in the period 1919-23 the flow took on considerable proportions. The halutzim (ḥalutzim) [["pioneers]] came mostly from Podolia, the Ukraine, Volhynia, and Belorussia, and they converged on Vilna, Baranovichi, Rovno, Pinsk, and Warsaw. In the initial phase the Polish authorities tolerated the illegal entry and on the basis of documents furnished by the Palestine Office of the [[racist]] Zionist Movement and provided the halutzim (ḥalutzim) [["pioneers", who can be turned into soldiers easily]] with emigrants' passports on the assumption that their stay in Poland would be short.

When immigration to Palestine was stopped in 1921, however, the Polish authorities took severe measures against the halutzim (ḥalutzim), arresting and deporting them back to the Soviet border. It was only after the [[racist]] Zionist institutions had undertaken to speed up the departure of the halutzim (ḥalutzim) for Erez Israel that the situation was alleviated.

The Russian halutzim (ḥalutzim) established an organization of Russian and Ukrainian halutzim (ḥalutzim) in Poland, many of whom were placed in the Polish He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) training farms, while others were in halutzim (ḥalutzim) hostels and private employment. These refugees from Russia left an indelible imprint upon the Polish movement. Eventually the Russian halutzim (ḥalutzim) were able to got to Palestine, and the last transport of 400 arrived in Jaffa on May 3, 1923.

The Polish He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) movement established within its ranks He-Halutz ha-Za'ir (He-Ḥalutz ha-Ẓa'ir), which maintained close relations with various [[racist]] Zionist youth movements, such as Dror (Freiheit [[Freedom]]), *Gordonia, *Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir), etc. The Polish He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) reached the height of its development during the Fourth and Fifth aliyot [[migration movements to Palestine]].

[Numbers - periodicals]

In 1924, He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) in Poland had a membership of 1,700; in 1925 - 4,600; 1930 - 11,600; 1933 - 41,000. Members enrolled in the training program numbered 712 in 1925, 2,450 in 1926, 2,230 in 1932, 4,450 in 1933, 7,915 in 1935. The Polish movement also published a number of periodicals.: He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) [["The Pioneer"]], He-Atid [["The Future"]], He-Halutz ha-Za'ir (He-Ḥalutz ha-Ẓa'ir) [["The Young Pioneer"]], etc.

[The "pioneers" of He-Halutz setting up illegal immigration to Palestine in 1934]

[[At the latest here the "pioneers" of He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) become absolutely criminal by leading Jews into the civil war territory of Palestine]].

In 1934 He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) inaugurated the *illegal immigration movement by dispatching the boat Velos with halutzim (ḥalutzim) [["pioneers"]] as "illegal" immigrants, in their transportation to Palestine, and in the struggle for opening the gates of Palestine. [[The Arabs answered appropriately]].

During World War II He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) members were among the most active resistance fighters against the Nazis [[and probably also against Arabs. "Pioneers" can be turned into soldiers easily...]]

[Criminal and racist Zionist He-Halutz movement in] Lithuania

["Cooperative societies" - "agricultural training facilities" - Memel - towns]

He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) in Lithuania was established after World War I and based itself initially upon cooperative societies (in carpentry, tailoring, food processing, etc.). Due to lack of capital and experience, these cooperative societies did not last long, and they were replaced by agricultural training facilities. The main center of agricultural training was a farm run solely by He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) known as Kibbush.

[[It can be admitted that there was not only "agricultural training", but also much military training...]]

Memel, the German port annexed by Lithuania, was also a center of He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) activities; it had an urban cooperative, the members of which were engaged in a variety of activities, including marine and port operations.Memel was also known in the movement for its outstanding He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) House.

Other urban He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) cooperatives existed at Kaunas, Siauliai, Vilkaviskis, Poniviez, etc. The membership of He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) in Lithuania ranged from 1,000 to 1,500. (col. 252)

[Criminal and racist Zionist He-Halutz movement in] Latvia

["Training farms" - He-Halutz "school" - towns - emigration to Palestine]

In Latvia, the He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) movement's main training farm was located at Altasmuza, near Riga. Originally the property of *OZE

[[ OSE / OZE: Obshchestvo Zdravookhraneniya Yevreyev (founded in 1912 in Russia), Engl.: Society for the Protection of the Health of the Jews]],

it was transferred to He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) and also served as a school, with the teachers receiving their salaries from the state. Other cooperative existed at Dvinsk, Tukum, and Libau. In the period 1920-21, 150 halutzim (ḥalutzim) [["pioneers", who can be turned into soldiers easily]] settled in Palestine and were followed by many more in the subsequent years.

[Criminal and racist Zionist He-Halutz movement in] Rumania [Romania]

[Racist Zionist He-Halutz "pioneer" Russians in Romania - "training farms"]

He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) came into existence in Rumania [[Romania]] in 1918, when Bessarabia, Bukovina, and Transylvania were incorporated into the country. It was started by halutzim (ḥalutzim) [["pioneers, who can be turned into soldiers easily]] who had fled from [[criminal Gulag]] Russia and the Ukraine [[from the wars in 1918]] and had to spend periods of varying length in Rumania before they were able to proceed to Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]]. These halutzim-in-transit established cooperatives of their own and also worked in the fields and forests. As a first step, the Rumanian [[Romanian]] He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) acquired two training farms:

-- one was later sold and replaced by the Massadah farm near Beltsy,

-- and the other was near Jassy.

Other farms were established near Galati and Bucharest. The capital for the acquisition of the farms and their maintenance was provided by a Friends of He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) Society. Most [[racist]] Zionist youth movements (Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (ha-Ẓa'ir), Gordonia, Dror, *Ha-No'ar ha-Ziyyoni (ha-Ẓiyyoni), *Benei Akiva, etc.) participated in the activities of He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) [["The Pioneer"]].

[Growing He-Halutz movement in the 1930s - He-Halutz organizing illegal emigration - haven Constanta - "many thousands" of He-Halutz members to Palestine - underground emigration under Nazi rule 1941-1945]

During the 1930s, when the anti-Semitic *Iron Guard rampaged the country, the He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) movement grew at a rapid pace, assisted by emissaries from Palestine. An important role was played by the Rumanian [[Romanian]] ports, mainly Constanta, which were used by olim [[Jews willing to migrate to Palestine]] from all over Europe on their way to Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]]. The passage of many thousands of halutzim (ḥalutzim) [["pioneers"]] through the country served to accelerate the aliyah of Rumanian [[Romanian]] halutzim (ḥalutzim) functioning under Nazi rule as an underground organization fulfilled a vital task in organizing and safeguarding the "illegal" immigration, often at the risk of their lives.

[Criminal and racist Zionist He-Halutz movement in] Central Europe

[Foundations of He-Halutz groups after WW I: Germany - one farm surviving - CSSR]

Early manifestations of interest in haluziyyut (ḥalutziyyut) [["pioneering"]] among a part of the Jewish youth in Germany, Austria, and what was later to become Czechoslovakia came to the fore [[came out]] during World War I. Officially, He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) was established in Germany at the end of 1918, and, as a first step, hundreds of halutzim (ḥalutzim) [["pioneers"]] (calling themselves Praktikanten [[Germ.: "trainees"]] and organized in the Praktikantenbund [[Germ.: "trainees association"]]) went out to work on farm estates in order to train for life in Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]]. This experiment, however, did not last long, and He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) established a number of training farms of its own. The movement's farms were not successful either, and only one ("Ha-Mahpekhah" - "the Revolution") was able to maintain itself for any period of time.

The lack of [[racist]] Zionist education and of a sizable working class among Central European Jewry prevented the development of He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) along eastern European lines. There were differences between the members of *Blau-Weiss [["Blue-White"]] and the halutzim (ḥalutzim) [["pioneers"]] who had not been affiliated with this youth movement; the former had their roots in the German youth movement (e.g., the Wandervogel [[rolling stone]]), and the revolutionary spirit of He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) in eastern Europe was alien to them. This created difficulties in the merger of the two elements in one organization, which was technically achieved by the efforts of leaders on both sides. The differences between them, however, were never entirely overcome.

Czechoslovakia was the country in which He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) was the closest in spirit and methods to the movement in Lithuania and Poland. The movement in western Europe developed along lines similar to Central Europe.

[Criminal and racist Zionist He-Halutz movement in criminal racist] United States

The first He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) organization in the [[criminal racist]] U.S. was established in 1905, at the same time that a similar (col. 253)

organization was formed in Odessa (Crimea). Its founders were a group of [[racist]] Zionist youth, most of whom were Russian immigrants from rural communities, who met in the Ha-Tehiyah (Ha-Teḥiyah) [["The Renewal"]] offices in New York and formed He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) to serve as the nucleus of a world movement to revive Jewish settlement in Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]]. Anchored in *Po'alei Zion [["Zion Workers", racist Zionist Labor party]], the organization was led by Eliezer Joffe who wrote articles in several newspapers to enlist the participation of youth in settling in Palestine as pioneers.

In 1906 Joffe published an article entitled "The People's Road to Its Land", in which he staked the rebirth of the Jewish people on the dedication of young pioneers. Meanwhile, in 1905, Halutzei (Ḥalutzei) Po'alei Zion was formed within Po'alei Zion, with branches in New York, Philadelphia, Montreal, Baltimore, and elsewhere. In 1908 the New York He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) group was absorbed into a new organization, Ha-Ikkar ha-Za'ir (ha-Ẓa'ir) [["the ultimate new"]], whose program remained nearly identical with that of He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) [["The Pioneer"]].

During world War I, the U.S. He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) movement received a tremendous impetus from the presence of Ben-Gurion and Ben-Zvi, who tried to establish a He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) [["The Pioneer"]] organization in the [[criminal racist]] U.S. with the help of the Po'alei Zion party [["Zion Workers", racist Zionist Labor party]] and published a Yiddish pamphlet, "Printsipen un Oyfgaben" [["Principles and Tasks"]] (Sifriyyat He-Halutz  (He-Ḥalutz), 1917). Several hundred Jewish youth responded to its call for [[racist Zionist]] pioneers to rebuild a Jewish homeland through practical settlement [[in the fight with against the Arabs]] rather than political or other means.

[["Pioneer" in the racist Zionist language means: young manipulated man to be a soldier...]]

The original goal of the movement was to settle pioneers at the earliest opportunity. However, when immigration to Palestine was restricted in 1926, the world He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) movement began to focus its emphasis on hakhsharah ("preparation" or "training") for potential pioneer youth.

[Influx of new Jewish members after the riots in Palestine and White Paper policy in 1929 - headquarter and branches of He-Halutz Organization of America - "farms" set up]

Many Jewish youths were aroused by the Arab riots in Palestine and the subsequent British White Paper in 1929,

[[It seems that the young Jews were manipulated by the censored press and did not know anything of illegal Jewish immigration and the illegal fighting operations of racist Zionist terror groups like Haganah etc. The Zionist propagandists called for the "historical right" but their idea was a Jewish Empire from Nile to Euphrates according to 1st Mose chapter 15 phrase 18]].

and in 1932 the He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) Organization of America was formed with headquarters in New York and twenty city and rural branches across the U.S. and in Canada.

[[The main fault that Jewry could not be a nation but is a religion - and that the main enemy is the Vatican and not a nation - was never seen by the stupid journalists, and was never discussed. But the Jews in the criminal racist "USA" were furious because they had given money into Jewish projects in Palestine. The money made the link...]]

In 1933 He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) rented its first hakhsharah [[pioneer training]] farm, and it subsequently purchased farms at Creamridge, New Jersey (1936); Heightstown, New Jersey (1940); Poughkeepsie, New York; Smithville, Ontario; and Colton, California (1948) to train its members for agricultural work in Palestine.

[[It can be admitted that there was no only "agricultural work", but also much military killing training, and then they were killing Arabs in Palestine, at the end at the "War of Independence"...]]

By 1948 He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) had grown from a few hundred members to 1,600, and since its inception several hundred members had emigrated to Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]]. When the hakhsharah [["pioneering"]] farms were liquidated in the mid-1950's, the activities of He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) were assumed by Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (ha-Ẓa'ir) [["The New Watchman"]], which had always maintained a large degree of autonomy. Nominally, however, the He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) Organization of America still exists. The only American group to support He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) financially was the American Fund for Palestinian Institutions.


[Numbers - youth and He-Halutz Department]

When World War II broke out, He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) had a membership of 100,000. In 1927, according to statistics published by the Histadrut, 43% of all [[racist Zionist]] workers in Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]] and 80% of the members of kibbutzim had been trained by He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) before settling in Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]]. After the war, the world movement of He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) ceased to exist, although the activities that it had conducted were renewed on a smaller scale in Europe, the United States, and other countries.

Pioneering youth movements, like all [[racist]] Zionist youth movements, now conduct their work under the (col. 254)

auspices of the Youth and He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) Department of the world Zionist Organization.

Teilen / share:



-- M. Basok (ed.): Sefer He-Halutz (1939)
-- He-Halutz: Me'assef li-Temu'at He-Halutz (Warsaw, 1930)
-- He-Halutz be Rusyah (1932)
-- D. Pines: He-Halutz be-Khur ha-Mahpekhah (1938)
--B. West: Naftulei Dor, 2 vols. (1945, 1956)
-- Y. Erez (ed.): Sefer ha-Aliyyah ha-Shelishit, 2 vols. (1964)
-- idem: Sefer Z.S. (1963)
-- Z. Liberman (Livneh): Pirkei ha-Aliyyah ha-Shelishit (1958)
-- I. Ritov: Perakim be-Toledot Ze'irei-Ziyyon (1964)
-- Asufot, 6 (1959), 98-110
-- L. Spiezman: Khalutsim in Poyln, 3 vols. (1959-1962)
-- M. Braslavsky: Toledot Tenu'at ha-Po'alim ha-Arzisre'elit, 4 vols. (1955-1962), index
-- P. Merhav: Toledot Tenu'at ha-Po'alim be-Erez Ysrael (1967)
-- A. Boehm: Die Zionistische Bewegung [[Germ.: The Zionist Movement]], 2 vols. (1935-1937), index
-- Y. Michaeli, in: Asufot, 6 (1959), 107-10

[I.RI. / Y.S.]> (col. 255)

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): He-Halutz
                        (Ḥalutz), vol. 8, col. 247-248
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): He-Halutz (Ḥalutz), vol. 8, col. 247-248
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): He-Halutz
                        (Ḥalutz), vol. 8, col. 249-250
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): He-Halutz (Ḥalutz), vol. 8, col. 249-250
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): He-Halutz
                        (Ḥalutz), vol. 8, col. 251-252
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): He-Halutz (Ḥalutz), vol. 8, col. 251-252
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): He-Halutz
                        (Ḥalutz), vol. 8, col. 253-254
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): He-Halutz (Ḥalutz), vol. 8, col. 253-254

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): He-Halutz
                        (Ḥalutz), vol. 8, col. 255

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): He-Halutz (Ḥalutz), vol. 8, col. 255

Č  Ḥ  Ł  ¦  Ṭ  Ẓ ´ Ż
ā ă ć  č  ẹ  ȩ ę ḥ  ī  ł  ń ṣ  ś ¨  ş ū  ¸ ż ẓ