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Yehuda Bauer: My Brother's Keeper

A History of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee 1929-1939

[Holocaust preparations in Europe and resistance without solution of the situation]

The Jewish Publication Society of America, Philadelphia 1974

Transcription with subtitles by Michael Palomino (2007)



Chapter 6. The Beginning of the End
[A.] Austria

[6.3. NS Austria: At least 150,000 1/4, 1/2 and 3/4 Jews  etc. - at least 335,246 persons counted as Jews under NS rule]

[Emigration by IKG - at least 150,000 1/4, 1/2 and 3/4 Jews - 30,000 emigrate by summer 1939]

Emigration through IKG was slow in starting. From the first days of Nazi rule a parallel emigration office operated under the auspices of Frank van Gheel-Gildemeester, son of a Dutch court chaplain, whose actual intentions and connections with the Germans have not quite been cleared up to this day. His main concern was with the so-called non-Aryans, that is, converted Jews or descendants of Jews who fell under the definition of a Jew by Nazi standards. There were at least 150,000 of these in Austria, and Gildemeester claims that 30,000 had emigrated by the summer of 1939.

(End note 16: Germany-"G", institutions and organizations)

[By this the number there are 185,246 plus at least 150,000 are at least 335,246 people defined as Jews. For East European Jews there is no Zentralstelle to emigrate...].

JDC had to give up its attempt to establish an American Jew as

Table 16: Persons Fed in Vienna in 1938
No. fed

Also, 7,000 food packages were
sent to people in their homes.
(End note 17: Sources:
-- Fortnightly Digest, 24/25 and
-- R28, 1938 report.
The relief problem in Austria had some troublesome implications. In "old" Germany the government was at that time still supporting Jewish relief to the extent of about 600,000-700,000 marks monthly. In Austria, JDC and other foreign organizations were expected to foot the bill. If they did, the Germans might demand that they do it in Germany as well; if they did not, the Jewish poor would starve and be deported to concentration camps as "asocial elements". The upshot, of course, was that JDC paid).


its representative in Vienna. Apart from other considerations, the U.S. government was disinclined to sanction such a move.