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Yehuda Bauer: My Brother's Keeper

A History of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee 1929-1939. Index
[Holocaust preparations in Europe without solution of the situation]

The Jewish Publication Society of America, Philadelphia 1974. ISBN 0-8276-0048-8

Transcription with subtitles by Michael Palomino (2007)

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0. Introduction. The first fifteen years 1914-1929, p.3

1. A time of crisis: 1929-1932, p.19 (whole chapter)

1.1. The Joint's structures and leading persons
1.2. Catastrophic situation in Eastern Europe with wars 1919-1922
1.3. The resolution for a lasting existence of the Joint 1927-1931
1.4. Jewish Populations in Eastern Europe 1921-1929
1.5. Eastern Europe: Crop failures, nationalism and economic crisis provoke harsh anti-Semitism since 1928 / 1929
1.6. Reasons for the unsuccessful economies in Eastern Europe since 1919
1.7. Economic policy against the Jews in Eastern Europe since 1919 - methods - especially anti-Semitic Poland
1.8. The actions of the Joint against poverty of Jews in Eastern Europe
1.9. Stock market crash in New York in November 1929 - JDC funds are going down - Jewish disaster in Eastern Europe - new anti-Semitic wave
1.10. Kahn's expectations from a possible Hitler Germany: New Jewish refugees

2. Agro-Joint, p.57 (whole chapter)

2.1. Agro-Joint fights Jewish famine in Russia 1920-1922
2.2. Agro-Joint work with Jews according to NEP: Resettlement of Jewish "lishentsy" for being farmers since 1928 - first 5 year plan and collectivization crisis 1929-1930
2.3. Agro-Joint help work in Russia with kassas, health and children 1923-1930
2.4. The importation of yarn to Russia by the Agro-Joint in 1929
2.5. Five-year plan - Jews in the industrialization in industrial combines 1929-1933
2.6. Agro-Joint activities going down by industrialization since 1930 - schools
2.7. The Biro-Bidjan / Birobidzhan project for Jews from Russia and Poland 1926-1935
2.8. First Stalinist terror wave - all plans for Biro-Bidjan / Birobidzhan end in smoke 1936
2.9. Liquidation of COMZET 1938 - end of the Agro-Joint in Russia 1938
2.10. No documents about the last stays of the Agro-Joint members 1938-1945
2.11. Final discussion about the sense of the Agro-Joint work and the Jewish colonies in Russia

3. Germany: 1933-1938, p.105 (whole chapter)

3.1. Effects of the NS power to the Joint - first discussions about emigration
3.2. New Jewish organizations in NS Germany since April 1933
3.3. Discrimination of Jews from jobs and schools in the Third Reich since 1933
3.4. Number of Jews in Germany in 1933: 499,682 - with 1/4, 1/2 and 3/4 Jews:  760,000
3.5. The first emigration wave in 1933 - partly return
3.6. The discussion in the Joint about the strategy for the Jews in NS Germany: Stay and fight or emigration
3.7. The Joint's work in NS Germany since 1934
3.8. Joint's money questions - percentage of the sectors
3.9. NS poverty methods against the Jews in the Third Reich
3.10. The Haavarah agreement for emigration from Germany to Palestine
3.11. Joint's reconstruction work in NS Germany since 1933 - Jewish press fights
3.12. The race laws of Nuremberg 1935 - Zionist Jewry splits
3.13. Competition in fund raising between JDC and Zionists - 174,803 Jews emigrated 1933-1937
3.14. Situation after the Nuremberg laws after 1935 - destruction of German Jewry since 1937

4. Refugees: 1933-1938, p.138 (whole chapter)

4.1. First emigration wave 1933 in general
4.2. Foundation of new Jewish organizations in Europe
4.3. Germany blocks in the League of Nations - foundation of a High Commission for Jewish refugees
4.4. Chaos in Europe with Jewish committees without funds - Joint finances a big part of the High Commission
4.5. High Commissioner McDonalds without big success - no countries for the Jewish refugees
4.6. Hostile European governments - the negative propaganda from Nazi Berlin against Jewish refugees is "successful"
4.7. McDonalds quits his job - his call for "collective action"
4.8. The first emigration wave - no help and the reasons - German Jews impoverished in France - partly return to Germany
4.9. Nuremberg race laws 1935 provoke speedy action - Council for German Jewry in London - but no action
4.10. The involvement of the Joint in Palestine since 1920 - the Palestine Emergency Fund 1929
4.11. 1933-1935: Legal German Jewish immigration to Palestine - 1933-1938: 44,537
4.12. Palestine: Arab unrest against partition plans 1935-1939 - Joint leaders are against any partition of the Holy Land
4.13. Fund raising competition between Joint and Zionists
4.14. Emigration to North "America" - activities of the Joint in North "America"
4.15. Jewish haven Holland was not only a good haven 1933-1938
4.16. Jewish haven in Belgium 1933-1938
4.17. Jewish haven Switzerland 1933-1938 - mostly temporarily for emigration overseas
4.18. Other countries for German Jewish refugees and emigration overseas 1933-1938
4.19. Danzig: Peace until 1937 - riots 1937 and emigration
4.20. Austria: Blumenkrieg (war of flowers) and 185,246 plus x Jews affected by NS government

5. Prelude to the Holocaust, p.180 (whole chapter)

A. Destruction of the Jewish existence in Poland 1929-1939
5.1. Poland [Military regimes and anti-Semitic parties since 1926
5.2. Discrimination and murderous pogroms in anti-Semitic Poland 1935-1939
5.3. Structure of criminal anti-Semitism in Poland in the 1930s: Church - economy - nationalism
5.4. The Jews in Poland 1921-1938: Figures
5.5. Work of Joint Distribution Committee in anti-Semitic Poland
5.6. Jewish voices say Palestine is no solution - Zionists are blocked since 1935 by British block of immigration into Palestine - unrealistic points of view
5.7. Plans for emigration of the Polish Jews to Soviet Union and to Madagascar
5.8. Claims abroad of anti-Semitic Poland for emigration of Polish Jewry
5.9. JDC work in anti-Semitic Poland: Kassas - 1 mio. Jews in starvation
5.10. Vocational programs in Poland: Farming for Palestine or future jobs for industrialization - it's all in vain
5.11. JDC work in Galicia
5.12. JDC work for Jewish children and schools in anti-Semitic Poland

B. Destruction of the Jewish existence in Romania 1929-1939
5.13. Romania: Codreanu - Tartarescu - Goga
5.14. Joint Distribution Committee supports children in Romania - famine in Bessarabia 1935
5.15. General JDC work in Romania: Kassas
5.16. Nationalism - anti-Semitism - discrimination - Goga laws 1938
5.17. Nationalization laws - emigration terror without organized emigration 1938

C. 5.18. Czechoslovakia and Hungary 1933-1938

D. 5.19. The Baltic States Lithuania and Latvia 1929-1938

6. The beginning of the end, p.223 (whole chapter)

A. Austria

6.1. Austrian structures of Jewry 1919-1938 - 185,246 counted Jews in 1938
6.2. Accession (Anschluss) 12th March 1938: Anti-Semitic riots - Palestine office and Zentralstelle (Central office)
6.3. NS Austria: At least 150,000 1/4, 1/2 and 3/4 Jews  etc. - at least 335,246 persons counted as Jews under NS rule
6.4. NS Austria: "US" Jewish organizations can only watch

B. Switzerland's measures against the emigration wave in early 1938
6.5. Switzerlands gets emigration waves from Austria and Italy: Switzerland hands many Jews over to the Nazis

C. Evian conference in summer 1938
6.6. 22. März 1938: Preparation meeting for Evian Conference
6.7. Juli 1938: Evian Conference - Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees (ICR) set up

D. The refugees

6.8. France 1938 against Jewish refugees - prison and concentration camps
6.9. England 1938: Press protests against Jewish refugees
6.10. Switzerland 1938: Camps for Jewish refugees - handover to the Reich - and money questions
6.11. Anti-Jewish laws in Luxembourg, Italy, and Holland 1938
6.12. German-Polish action against Jews in 1938: Camp at Zbaszyn
6.13. Poland: Emigration committees for the Jews in 1938 - no places to emigrate - Madagascar plan

E. JDC in 1938/9
6.14. Internal change of structures within the Joint Distribution Committee 1938/1939

F. The "crystal night" [on 9/10th November 1938
6.15. Night of fire, glass pieces and robbery
6.16. JDC after Reichskristallnacht - disorder of Jewish organizations
6.17. Reichsvereinigung (RVE) set up - support for "non-Aryans"

G. Emigration and flight
6.18. Jewish Emigration figures for Germany, Austria, Bohemia, Moravia, and Danzig  1938-1939
6.19. Sudeten accession - harsh anti-Semitism in ex-CSSR territories after the split of the CSSR

H. Reactions abroad to the Reichskristallnacht / crystal night and to the split of CSSR
6.20. France's harsh anti-Semitic policy after Reichskristallnacht 1938-1939 with prison and concentration camps
6.21. Belgium's anti-Semitic threats - but no measures taken
6.22. Holland's police deports Jews without visas to the Reich
6.23. Switzerland's policy 1938-1939 - "J" stamp against Jewish refugees since 1st November 1938
6.24. Italy's policy against Jews 1938-1939 with deprivation of citizenship
6.25. Smaller havens in Europe for Jews
6.26. England's policy: 63-65,000 Jewish refugees by the end of 1939

I. 6.27. JDC saving and working for Jewish Children

J. Further happenings in Europe 1938-1939
6.28. The Rublee-Schacht episode and the coordinating foundation 01
6.29. Steamer St. Louis with 930 Jewish refugees comes back to Europe
6.30. England wants to hand over Palestine in 1949 - Guiana project
6.31. Last negotiations on the Coordinating Foundation for Schacht-Rublee emigration plan 02

K.6.32. Illegal Migration by ship

L. 6.33. Jewish emigration from the Reich (Germany and Austria) to Shanghai 1938-1939 - 18,000 by September 1939

M. 6.34. JDC before war times 1939 - Poland's Central Committee 1938

7. Conclusion - 440,000 Jews emigrated by JDC and HICEM 1929-1939, p.302

8. Appendix: Income and expenditure of JDC: 1914-1939, p.305

Notes about numeration of JDC sources (p.307)

Unless otherwise indicated, all references in the footnotes are to the JDC archive in New York. The archive is composed of two parts: one at the JDC Central Office (presently at 60 East 24nd Street) and one in a warehouse in Brooklyn. Very little use could be made of the second part of the JDC archive, because of the technical and physical conditions at the warehouse. Files from that source that have been quoted were transferred to the main office. The files at the office are now in the process of organization, but the material for the 1930s has not been registered yet. In the course of research for the present book, some of the material has been provisionally registered and numbers given.

Files of the Agro-Joint, which are kept separately at the office, have been marked AJ. Files for the 1929-33 period - also kept separately at the office - have been given numbers with no specific letter or figure markings. Files for the 1933-45 period are also kept separately and have been given coded numbers; for example 44-2, indicates that the file is in cabinet 44, file no. 2.

This is true for those cabinets which have been marked and for which index cards were prepared by me for the JDC archive. Cabinets that I did not work through for the archive have a number; the file, having no card and no number, has been described according to the heading on the file (e.g., 29-Germany, refugees). Files that have no numbers at all were taken from the warehouse and transferred to the office, but were not placed in a cabinet by the time the research was terminated.

"Excom" - Executive Committee meetings - files are kept in a separate cabinet, as are those of the Administrative Committee (AC). Additional material is kept at the JDC Library in special cabinets. Files marked "R", followed by a number, refer to reports; these are included in the 1933-45 material at the archive, but again are kept separately. (p.307)

Jewish international Organizations

-- Agro-Joint (AJ)
-- American Jewish Committee (AJC)
-- American Jewish Joint Agricultural Corporation (Agro-Joint)
-- American Jewish Reconstruction Foundation (AJRF)
-- American Jewish Relief Committee (AJRC)
-- American Relief Administration (ARA)
-- American Society for Jewish Farm Settlement in Russia (AMSOJEFS)
-- Central British Fund for German Jewry (CBF)
-- Central Committee of Jewish Artisans (CCJA)
-- Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds (CJFWF)
-- Émigré Charitable Fund (ECF)
-- Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society (HIAS) (emigration organization)
-- HICEM (emigration organization)
-- Jewish Academic Committee
-- Jewish Agency (JA)
-- Jewish Colonization Association (ICA)
-- Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA)
-- Jews' Temporary Shelter

-- JDC Joint Distribution Committee (JDC), with an Administration Committee (since 1937), with a steering committee (since 1939), with a Budget and Scope Committee, fund raising committee, committee on refugee countries, Latin America committee, Poland and Eastern Europe committee, European Council of JDC within
-- JDC Budget and Scope Committee
-- JDC Executive Committee (ECO)
-- JDC General Aid Committee
-- JDC's Cultural and Religious Committee

-- National Coordinating Committee
-- ORT (Organization for Rehabilitation through Training, Society for Crafts and Agricultural Labor)
-- OSE / OZE (Obshchestvo Zdravookhraneniya Yevreyev, Engl.: Society for the Protection of the Health of the Jews, Germ.: Schutz- und Gesundheitsgesellschaft für die Juden, founded in 1912
-- Refugee Economic Corporation (REC, originally called Refugee Rehabilitation Committee)
-- World Jewish Congress (WJC)
-- Histadruth (the Palestine General Jewish Federation of Labor)

Jewish Organizations in Germany

-- Reichsvertretung (RV) Jüdischer Landesverbände (All-German Association of Jewish Provincial Community Organizations)
-- executive committee (Präsidialausschuss)

-- Zentral-Ausschuss für Hilfe und Aufbau (ZA) (Central Committee for Help and Reconstruction), with it's parts:
oo Hauptstelle for Jewish wanderers: dealt with repatriation of East European Jews to their countries of origin
oo Central-Verein deutscher Staatsbürger jüdischen Glaubens, CV) (Principal Association of German civilians of Jewish belief) for emigration from Germany to other countries than Palestine or Eastern Europe
oo Hilfsverein
oo welfare organization of German Jews (Zentralwohlfahrtsstelle)
oo committee for education of the RV (Reich Deputation of German Jews, Germ.: Reichsvertretung der Juden in Deutschland)
oo center for economic aid
oo center for Jewish loan kassas
oo Palästinaamt (Palestine office, for emigration from Germany to Palestine)
oo united center for Jewish labor exchanges
oo organization of Jewish women

-- Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland (RVE, Reich's Federation of the Jews in Germany)

Local Jewish Organizations in other countries

-- Comité National Tchécoslovaque pour les Réfugiés Provenant d'Allemagne (CSSR)
-- Jewish Social Institute (Sociální Ústav) (CSSR)
-- Lord Mayor's Fund for Jewish emigration from CSR (CSR-England)

-- Baldwin Fund for Refugees (England, founded 1938/1939)
-- British Guiana Refugee Commission (GB, Guiana project)
-- Council for German Jewry (England)

-- Agriculture et Artisanat (France)
-- Assistance Médicale aux Enfants (France)
-- Comité Central de Réfugiés (Central Refugee Committee, France) (since Reichskristallnacht / crystal night)
-- Comité d'Aide et d'Accueil (France)
-- Comité d'Assistance aux Réfugiés (CAR) (France) (since 1936)
-- Consistoire Centrale, the main religious authority of French Jewry (France)
-- Fédération des Sociétés Juives (France)
-- French Jewish Consistoire (France)
-- French National Committee (France)
-- Reclassement Professionel (France, for vocational training)

-- Dutch Jewish Relief Committee (Holland)
-- Committee for Jewish Refugees (CJR, Holland)

-- American Federation of Polish Jews (AFPJ) ("USA"-Poland)
-- American Committee for Aid of Jews in Galicia ("USA"-Poland / Galicia)
-- Jewish Emigration and Colonization Committee (Poland)
-- CENTOS (children's help organization)
-- TOZ (Tovarzystwo Ochrony Zdrowia, Engl.: Health protection society for the Jewish population in Poland)

-- Union of Romanian Jews
-- Jewish political party (Volkspartei)

-- Swiss Israelite Federate Corporation (Schweizerischer Israelitischer Gemeindebund (SIG) (Switzerland)
-- Verein Schweizerischer Israelitischer Armenpflegen [Confederation of Swiss Israelite poor care] (VSIA) (Switzerland)

-- American Friends Service Committee ("USA")
-- New York National Coordinating Committee ("USA")
-- National Refugee Service ("USA")

Other countries
-- Havana Refugee Committee (Cuba)
-- Israelitische Kultusgemeinde (IKG, engl.: Israelite cultus congregation) (Austria)
-- Esra (local aid committee in Luxembourg)

Local Jewish Organizations in Palestine

-- Central Bank of Cooperative Institutions (founded 1922) (Palestine)
-- Loan Bank (Kupath Milveh)
-- Palestine Economic Corporation (PEC) (Palestine)
-- United Palestine Appeal (UPA) (Palestine)

Other organizations
-- Advisory Committee on Political Refugees (Evian 1938)
-- American Friends Service Committee (AFSC, Quaker organization)
-- Central Financial Institution (founded by the Reconstruction Foundation, Poland)
-- Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees (ICR) (set up at Evian 1938)
-- International Trade and Investment Agency (INTRIA) (in Palestine)
-- Paltreu: Haavarah bank
-- Reconstruction Foundation (in Poland)
-- TER, the export subcommittee of the Economic Council (Wirtschaftsrat)
-- Verband (Zionists in Poland)
-- non-Jewish committee of Friends to Promote Jewish Emigration to Madagascar (Poland)


-- Adler-Rudel, Shalom: Ostjuden in Deutschland; Tübingen 1959
-- Administration Committee files (AC)
-- Agar, Herbert: The Saving Remnant; New York, 1960
-- AJ (Agro-Joint files)
-- Baeck, Leo: Leo Baeck Yearbook; London 1964
-- Ball-Kaduri, K.Y.: The National Representation of Jews in Germany; In: Yad Vashem Studies; Jerusalem 1958
-- Bauer, Yehuda: From Diplomacy to Resistance; Philadelphia 1970
-- Bein, Alexander: The Jewish Parasite; In: Leo Baeck Yearbook; London 1964
-- Bentwich, Norman: They Found Refuge (London  1965)
-- Bernstein, Herman: The History of American Jewish Relief; 1928, now in the JDC Library
-- Blumenfeld, Kurt: Erlebte Judenfrage; Stuttgart 1962
-- Braham, Randolph L., ed.: Hungarian Jewish Studies. 2 vols.; New York 1969
-- Broszat, Martin et alia: Die Anatomie des SS-Staates [Anatomy of the SS state]; Olten und Freiburg 1965
-- Cohen, Joseph L.: Salvaging German Jewry; London 1939
-- Documents: Command Paper 6014; London 1939
-- Documents: Foreign Relations of the United States, 1938, 1939
-- Documents on British Foreign Policy, 1919-1939
-- Documents on German Foreign Policy, 1919-1939
-- Esh, Shaul: The Establishment of the Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland and Its Activities (Hebrew); In: Yad Vashem Studies; Jerusalem 1968, 7:19-38
-- Faust: Book of American Federation of Polish Jews. 25th annual convention, June 11-12, 1933
-- Feingold, Henry L.: Politics of Rescue; New Brunswick, N.J., 1969
-- Frankel, Josef (editor): The Jews of Austria; London 1967
-- Grossmann, Kurt R.: Remigration; Frankfurt a. / M. 1969
-- Grunewald, Max: The Beginning of the Reichsvertretung; In: Leo Baeck Yearbook; London 1956, 1:57 ff.
-- Habe, Hans: The Mission; New York 1966 (about Evian conference 1938)
-- Handlin, Oscar: A Continuing Task; New York, 1964
-- Hansard Parliamentary Debates, House of Lords
-- Hilberg, Raul: The Destruction of European Jews; Chicago 1961
-- JDC archives, files "R"
-- Kahn: Reports
-- Kahn: Report and Bulletin; January 1936
-- Kahn's material: Hilfsverein der deutschen Juden 1931-1940
-- Krausnick, Helmuth: Judenverfolgung; In: Martin Broszat et alia: Die Anatomie des SS-Staates; Olten und Freiburg 1965
-- Lagus, Karel and Polak, Josef: Mesto za Mrízemi; Prague 1964
-- Lestschinsky, Jacob: Crisis, Catastrophe and Survival; London 1946
-- Lowenthal, E.G.: Bewährung im Untergang; Stuttgart 1965
-- Ludwig, Carl: Die Flüchtlingspolitik der Schweiz seit 1933 bis zur Gegenwart. Bericht an den Bundesrat [The refugee policy of Switzerland since 1933 to the present]; Zurich, no date [1957]
-- Mahler, R.: Jews in Public Service and the Liberal Professions in Poland, 1918-39; In: Jewish Social Studies 6, no. 4 (October 1944)
-- Mahler, Raphael: Jews in Poland between the Two World Wars (Hebrew); Tel Aviv 1968
-- Mahler, Raphael: Ringelblum's Letters from and about Zbaszyn (Hebrew)
-- Mashberg, Michael: America and the Refugee Crisis; M.A. thesis; City University of New York, 1970
-- Mayer Saly: Saly Mayer files (SM)
-- Melchior, Carl: Ein Buch des Gedenkens und der Freundschaft; Tübingen 1967
-- Morse, Arthur D.: While Six Million Died; New York 1968
-- Proudfoot, Malcolm: European Refugees; London 1957
-- Reich, Nathan: , JDC Primer (1945), JDC Library)
-- Reichsgesetzblatt (RGB)
-- Reitlinger, Gerald: The Final Solution; London 1968
-- Reutter, Lutz Eugen: Die Hilfstätigkeit katholischer Organisationen und kirchlicher Stellen für die im nationalsozialistischen Deutschland Verfolgten
-- Roos, Hans: Geschichte der Polnischen Nation 1916-1960 [English: History of the Polish Nation]; Stuttgart 1961
-- Rosenkranz, Herbert: The Anschluss and the Tragedy of Austrian Jewry, 1938-1945; In: Josef Frankel: The Jews of Austria; London 1967
-- Rosenstock, Werner: Exodus 1933-1939; In: Leo Baeck Yearbook; London 1956
-- Rothkirchen, Livia: The Destruction of Slovak Jewry (Hebrew); Jerusalem 1961
-- Sharf, Andrew: The British Press and Jews under Nazi Rule; Oxford 1964
-- SIG: Festschrift zum 50-jährigen Bestehen; Zurich, no date [1954]
-- Simon, Ernst: Aufbau im Untergang; Tübingen 1959
-- Slutsky, Yehuda: Sefer Toldot Hahaganah; Tel Aviv 1963
-- Szajkowski, Zosa:
oo Articles dealing with the problems of JDC remittances; In: American Jewish Historical Quarterly 17
oo  Budgeting American Overseas Relief, 1919-1939; In: American Jewish Historical Quarterly 59, nos. 1-3
oo The Attitude of American Jews to Refugees from Germany in the 1930's; In: American Jewish Historical Quarterly 61, no. 2
-- van Tijn, Gertude: Werkdorf Nieuwesluis; In: Leo Baeck Yearbook, Vol. 14; London 1969
-- Waldman, Morris D.: Nor by Power; New York, 1955
-- Wischnitzer, Mark:
oo Die Juden in der Welt; Berlin 1935
oo  Visas to Freedom; New York 1956
-- Wyman, David S.: Paper Walls; Amherst, Mass., 1968
-- Yad Vashem Studies; Jerusalem 1958

Sources: Abbreviations
-- AC: Administration Committee files
-- AJ: Agro-Joint files
-- R: JDC archives, files "R"
-- RGB (Reichsgesetzblatt)
-- SM: Saly Mayer files
-- WAC: Warburg-Archiv in Cincinnati


American Jewish Historical Quarterly
Angriff (Goebbels' newspaper in the Third Reich)
CV-Zeitung (Jewry in Germany)
Czas (Poland)
Forverts (Yiddish socialist newspaper)
Ganiec Czestochowski (Poland)
Gazetta Swiateczna (Poland)
Jewish Chronicle (Jewry in "USA")
Jewish Social Service Quarterly
Jüdisches Nachrichtenblatt (Jews in Germany, the only paper allowed after 10th November 1938)
London Times (England)
News Chronicle
Newsletter of the Conference on Jewish Relations
Proceedings (of the National Conference of Jewish Social Welfare)
Sprawy Katolicke (Poland)
Stürmer (Streicher's newspaper in the Third Reich)
Sunday Pictorial (England)

Mentioned Magazines?

Das Schwarze Korps (SS, Germany)
Der Völkische Beobachter (NS Germany)
Fortnightly Digest
Proceedings (of the National Conference of Jewish Social Welfare)
The New Cambridge Modern History (England)