Colonialism in Chronology - chapter III
"American" Holocaust in Central and South "America"
Massacres, "Christianizations" and exploitation fulfilling an order of the Pope and of the Crown 1492-1558
3.3. "American" Holocaust in the "Caribbean" - 3 million natives killed
The word of "America" of the German geographer Mr. Waldseemüller in 1507:
This is the war declaration against all natives... 
by Michael Palomino (1999 / 2003 / 2005 / 2007 / 2009)
-- Reinhard, Wolfgang: Geschichte der europäischen Expansion.
- vol.I: Die Alte Welt bis 1818. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart/Berlin/Köln/Mainz 1983
- vol.II: Die Neue Welt. Verlag W.Kohlhammer GmbH, Stuttgart, Berlin, Cologne, Mainz. Edited in Stuttgart, 1985
-- Huby, Felix. Traumreisen; Auf den Spuren grosser Entdecker. Deutscher Bücherbund GmbH, Stuttgart, Hamburg, Munich, 1980
-- H.Jestrabek: http://ourworld.compuserve.com (2005)
-- some basic data from DTV history atlas
14. Beginning mass death with the natives - beginning fortress constructioning on "Hispañola" - Taino natives on Cuba in New Xaragua - Goa conquered by the Portuguese - Magellan's sailorship and injury in Africa
15. Death of Columbus in Valladolid - his family is purchasing the duke's title
16. The atlas of Mr. Waldseemüller and Mr. Ringmann with the name "America" and with the western coast lines as a hypothesis
17. Caribbean Holocaust from 1494 to 1508: 3 million dead natives on the Caribbean Islands
18. Beginning of Spanish town construction and founding of colonies on the continent; Panama, north coast of South "America"
19. Hypocrisy for a "protectorate" for the natives - Vasco Nuñez de Balboa with a flight to San Sebastian - task of San Sebastian - foundation of Darien - Pizarro - beginning of the big slave trade between Africa and "America"
20. "Rise" of the Fugger family with monopolies in Europe - Spanish occupation of Cuba under Velasquez and Cortés - guerrilla war of Taino natives - De Montesino claiming a liberation of the slaves
21. Native laws of Spanish Crown without effect - Bartholomé de las Casas - execution of Taino leader Hatuey on Cuba - Spanish occupation of Jamaica - Panama project of Balboa for finding the Pacific - "rise" of Spanish occupants - mass death of natives - Spaniards bringing grain and European domestic animals to "America"
22. Map of Mr. Waldseemüller with the remark "TERRA NOVA" - Spain: "Protection" laws for natives ("requerimiento") - natives remaining without protection against Spanish occupants and slave hunters - Bartolomé de las Casas presenting his idea of more African slaves - Magellan preparing for a tour around the world for the Spanish Crown - Aztec expansion - Balboa reaching Panama and the Pacific - Inca expansion up to Ecuador
23. Germany: Indulgence for a Saint Peter's church provoking a rebellion of Luther - occupation of Panama "completed" - Charles of Austria in Burgundy - Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán
24. Spain: beginning of the government of Charles V
25. Magellan's argument for a sailing tour around the world: the quarrel about Moluccas Islands - Spanish expedition to Yucatán - last remnants of natives on Hispañola - Balboa in Panama is beheaded by a rival - Luther's 95 thesis in Wittenberg against the Pope - first Aztec expansion
26. Luther has to take a flight - Spanish Aztec expedition and projected occupation of the Aztec Empire - treaty between Charles V and Magellan for a sailing trip around the world - Magellan starting against the rebellion of the crew - Cortés preparing the occupation of Mexico
27. Magellan at the equator - Luther's rupture with Rome - Charles V being elected as an Emperor against Francis I - Charles' project of a "Universal Empire" against nationalism, protestants and the Pope - Da Gama becoming an earl - foundation of Panama Town - native golden art exhibition in Europe
14.Beginning mass death with the natives - beginning fortress constructioning on "Hispañola" - Taino natives on Cuba in New Xaragua - Goa conquered by the Portuguese - Magellan's sailorship and injury in Africa
Since 1505 appr. the mass death with the natives in Spanish slavery in the "encomienda" system begins (Reinhard, vol.II, p.60).
[It can be admitted that the natives were "used" for forced labor working with heavy stones and bringing the heavy stones for the town of Santo Domingo]
In Santo Domingo the first fortress is completed. By an order of Nicolas of Ovando the tower is completed in 1505. This tower is a part of the fortress of Ozama (in Spanish: "Fortaleza Ozama"), the oldest military fortress in "America".
There are some data about this fortress of Santo Domingo referring probably to different levels of realization:
-- one source is Lagrange Tower (hotel in Santo Domingo) indicating the year of 1505 [web01]
-- an Internet travel guide "Guia virtual del Caribe" is indicating for the tower 1503 [web02] or there is also the indication of 1507 [web03].
Santo Domingo: fortress of Ozama with the "Honoring tower" ("Torre de Homenaje"), 1505 
Cuba: Since 1505 the immigrated Taino from Hispañola" are installing a new homeland New Xaragua (Jestrabek).
India: Since 1505 Portugal lets conquer the town of Goa. Fernando Magellan is serving for the Portuguese Crown being part of the occupation of Goa at the Malabar Coast (Huby, p.93).
Indonesia and Pacific: Following an order of Albuquerque Mr. Magellan is passing the Pacific looking for the Spice Islands. After a quarrel with Albuquerque he is leaving the "Indian Army" returning to Portugal with a deception. As a freelancer in Africa he is in the army conquering the Muslim fortress of Azamur and is suffering an injury there. Now he means that he will never have any chance any more in Portugal (Huby, p.93).
Death of Columbus in Valladolid - his family is purchasing the duke's title
May 20, 1506: Death of Columbus
Columbus is dying without any public in Valladolid (Huby, p.57). Yet on his day of his death Columbus believes that he had detected India [web04].
Now his family is profiting from the dead Columbus:
-- his son and his grandson are provisional governors of Haiti
-- the family is purchasing several duke's titles (Reinhard, vol.II, p.43).
1506: World map of Giovanni Contarini
World map of Giovanni Contarini, drawing with the coast lines of the eastern coast of the "America" 
In: Cartographic Images: Index of Renaissance Maps 1500-1700
The atlas of Mr. Waldseemüller and Mr. Ringmann with the name "America" and with the western coast lines as a hypothesis
Geographer Mr. Martin Waldseemüller from Saint-Dié - or his friend Matthias Ringmann - are promoting in a foreword of their atlas "Cosmographiae Introductio" the name for the fourth continent "America"
->> but in the new editions of the atlas "Mundus Novus" of Vespucci the name remains "Las Indias"
->> in the new editions of Waldseemüller is only spoken about "Mundus Novus" / "New World"
->> the name "America" is making it's own way (Reinhard, vol.II, p.45)
[by the population in Europe or by another atlas as it seems].
Waldseemüller and Ringmann are editing a first world map with the name "America" according to the personal name of Vespucci "Amerigo" (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.225).
Mr. Waldseemüller is the first geographer having the courage calling the clear but yet hypothetic west coast of "America" in a world map (Reinhard, vol.II, p.45).
1507: World map of Martin Waldseemüller
World map of Mr. Waldseemüller with a first hypothetic west coast for "America" 
Detail with the name "AMERICA" 
Mr. Waldseemüller means that there would be a historical duty calling the new continent according to his white Spanish "discoverer" Amerigo Vespucci. With this word "America" all other names of the Portuguese colonial history are suppressed like
-- "Ilha de Vera Cruz" [web28] ("Island of the true cross" [web22] which was the name given by Pedro Álvares Cabral in 1500 who was landing as a first white man on the South "American" continent [web21] thinking that this territory would be an island [web25])
-- "Terra Sancta Crucis" [web28] ("Land of the Holy Cross" [web22] which was given by king Manuel of Portugal [web23] correcting the name of the alleged island [web25])
-- "Mundus Novus" [web28] ("New World", name given by Amerigo Vespucci in his travel report from 1502 [web24])
-- "Terra dos papagaios" [web28] ("Parrot Territory" [web22], also a name by king Manuel of Portugal because the Portuguese sailors could not find metals first but they were coming home with some parrots to Portugal presenting them at the royal court [web25])
-- "Brazzil", "Brazil" [web28] (this is the name for a kind of wood with well loved colorants of the local region [web25], thus "Terra do Brazil" was in English "Brazil Wood Land" [web26])
-- "Verzin" [web28] (this is the Italian name for "Brazil wood" [web26])
-- "Indias Occidentales" [web28] ("West India", this was a common name used also in future for whole Central and South "America", e.g. in titles of travel reports as e.g. by Bartolomé de las Casas [web27]).
Caribbean Holocaust from 1494 to 1508: 3 million dead natives on the Caribbean Islands
Between 1494 and 1508 over 3 million natives of the Caribbean islands are dying. This is almost the whole population (Jestrabek).
1508: World map by Francesco Rosselli
This World map by Rosselli is going on admitting that Europe would be next to Asia 
Beginning of Spanish town construction and founding of colonies on the continent; Panama, north coast of South "America"
Panama: The Spanish colonial regime is conquering now territories systematically (Reinhard, vol.II, p.49); and "Puerto Rico" is conquered by the Spanish (Reinhard, vol.II, p.49) under Ponce de León.
Ponce de Leon / León, Spanish colonialist in Puerto Rico 
Also in South "America" first Spanish settlements are "founded", so at the north coast of the today's Columbia in the territory of Santa Marta and Cartagena (Reinhard, vol.II, p.49) [may be San Sebastian?]
Hypocrisy for a "protectorate" for the natives - Vasco Nuñez de Balboa with a flight to San Sebastian - task of San Sebastian - foundation of Darien - Pizarro - beginning of the big slave trade between Africa and "America"
Spain: In 1510 appr. Spanish propaganda is calling the forced labor system for the natives of 1503 as a "protection order", as "encomienda" (Reinhard, vol.II, p.60).
In 1510 the fortress "Ozama" of Santo Domingo is completed [web5].
On Hispañola are living 46,000 natives yet (Jestrabek).
[There is no data nowhere about victims of the work in the quarries or by the transportations of the stones].
Hispañola-Panama: Nuñez de Balboa is taking a flight in 1510 from Hispañola because of high debts. He is taking his flight on a ship to the new colony of "San Sebastian" on the continent of South "America".
Nunez / Nuñez de Balboa, profiles, Spanish colonialist in the Caribbean [7,8]
He is detected soon, but he can convince the leader of the expedition that he could serve them better as a normal soldier than being brought back to Hispañola being a prisoner [web06].
San Sebastian and Darien: The adventure in San Sebastian is turning out as a failure. Nuñez de Balboa is convincing the leaders now to shift the colony to Darien (today's passage of Panama). Soon he is winning the command over the expedition. The landing operation in Darien is a success [web06].
South "America": Francisco Pizarro is taking part in an expedition to the territory of the today's Columbia [web07].
Francisco Pizarro, portrait, Spanish colonialist in the Caribbean 
Big slave trade: In the same year of 1510 slave trade between Africa and "America" is starting: People from West Africa are taken as trade good in slave ships to "America" (Jestrabek) [with a high death rate on the ships under Dutch flag].
As a "relief" for the natives with their slave labor black slaves are imported from "America" (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.225).
Colonial church in Santo Domingo 
[It can be admitted that also this church was built by native slaves and black slaves, from the quarry to the inauguration].
"Rise" of the Fugger family with monopolies in Europe - Spanish occupation of Cuba under Velasquez and Cortés - guerrilla war of Taino natives - De Montesinos claiming a liberation of the slaves
Augsburg (Germany): The weaver's family of the Fugger in Augsburg in Germany performed a successful rise. Since 1511 Mr. Jakob Fugger "the rich" is a banker of the Habsburg family and of the Pope. During those times he is controlling (until 1525)
-- the European plumb production
-- the European silver production
-- the European copper production
-- and he is purchasing the monopoly for mercury (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.215).
Jakob Fugger the Rich from Augsburg, one of the traders during colonialism times [web11]
Hispañola-Cuba: In 1511 Diego Colón - son of Columbus - is arming a fleet for colonizing Cuba. Cuba is conquered under the leadership of Diego Velásquez. Taino natives begin a guerrilla war under their leader Hatuey [without any chance] (Jestrabek).
Diego Colon, son of Columbus and Spanish colonialist on Cuba 
Diego Velasquez, Spanish colonialist on Cuba 
Cuba: the duo Velásquez - Cortés
Under Velásquez the Spaniard Hernan Cortés is a soldier and is involved in the occupation of Cuba [web08].
On Cuba Hernan Cortés has to marry a woman (Reinhard, vol.II, p.53). Cortés begins to "make his career" on Cuba (Reinhard, vol.II, p.52). Velasquez becomes a governor and Cortés becomes his mayor [web09].
Under Velásquez Mr. Cortés is elected a mayor and judge at a criminal court of Santiago [web10].
Portugal: Around 1511 Mr. Fernao de Magalhaes/Magellan is serving for the Portuguese Crown in Morocco and in India. But he does not feel well awarded for that what he has performed. After a claim the Portuguese king is ordering him to change the state serving to other states than Portugal [web11].
Mexico, Yucatán: In 1511 first ships of Spanish conquerers are landing ans "having a look" on the peninsula of Yucatán in the town Uxmál [web12].
Satellite photo with the peninsula of Yucatán next to Cuba 
Santo Domingo/Hispañola, Cuba: The Dominican Antonio de Montesinos is preaching in December 1511 against the abuse of natives (H. Jestrabek).
In 1511 Montesinos is warning (Reinhard, vol.II, p.60) in the church of Santo Domingo. The whole church is prepared for this action. Montesinos is claiming that the slave traders and capitalists will commit a lethal sin when they will not stop with their slavery:
->> Montesinos claims that all local dwellers who are in slavery should be freed otherwise there would be no liberation of sin for the Spaniards
<Ihr seid alle in Todsünde und lebt und sterbt in ihr wegen der Grausamkeit und Tyrannis, die ihr gegen diese unschuldigen Menschen gebraucht. Sagt, mit welchem Recht [...] haltet ihr jene Indianer in einer so grausamen und schrecklichen Dienstbarkeit? [...] Wie bedrückt und plagt ihr sie, ohne ihnen Essen zu geben, noch sie in ihren Krankheiten zu pflegen, die sie sich durch die übermässigen Arbeiten zuziehen, die ihr ihnen auferlegt, und die sterben oder, besser gesagt, die ihr tötet, um jeden Tag Gold zu erraffen.> (Reinhard II., S.61).
<You are all in the lethal sin and you are living and dying in it because of the cruelty and tyranny which you are using against innocent humans. Tell me with which right [...] you are keeping natives in such dreadful and horrible conditions serving you? [...] How are you suppressing and torturing them leaving them without food nor giving help against their illnesses they are getting by too much work you are forcing them - and then they are dying or better they are killed so you have enriched yourself with more gold every day.> (Reinhard vol.II, p.61)
->> now the colonial leadership is protesting
-> now king Ferdinand is "puzzled" because this is a new situation for him
->> king Ferdinand is calling for an expert group about slavery in "West India" (Reinhard, vol.II, p.62).
King Ferdinand I of Portugal 
Native laws of Spanish Crown without effect - Bartholomé de las Casas - execution of Taino leader Hatuey on Cuba - Spanish occupation of Jamaica - Panama project of Balboa for finding the Pacific - "rise" of Spanish occupants - mass death of natives - Spaniards bringing grain and European domestic animals to "America"
Spain: At the beginning of 1512 the expert group about slavery is deciding for a first "Native law" ("Leyes de Burgos")
-- the experts are keeping the basic values of Antonio de Montesino that all enslaved locals [who are living yet!] should be freed
-- they try to create detailed prescriptions in favor of the natives
-- but at the same time "obedience" is introduced for natives which is "normal" in Europe for the necessity being justified with regular controls of working groups and lethal cases (Reinhard, vol.II, p.62)
These "Leyes Nuevas" ["New Laws"] are mostly without any effect. Only the representatives of the Church are fighting on against the occupants and slave hunters. The Spanish soldier and "Encomendero", Bartolomé de las Casas, is joining the Dominicans because he was brought to a "return" by a Bible word in Sirach 34:
"Blood is shed when the worker is left without salary." (German text: "Blut vergiesst, wer dem Arbeiter den Lohn entzieht.")
->> Casas is rejecting voluntarily his post of his "Encomienda"
->> and instead of all laws the catastrophe with the native population can be seen clearly, and this is one more reason for Casas to join the side of the defenders of the natives (Reinhard, vol. II, p.64).
Cuba 1512: The Taino leader Hatuey is betrayed and executed. Just before his execution a Franciscan wants to baptize him. Las Casas is reporting about this that Hatuey was asking if the Christians will also go to heaven. The Franciscan was saying yes. Then Hatuey was rejecting of being baptized:
<It's better I suffer the torture and pain in the hell than living in the sky with these most cruel humans of all humans.> (H. Jestrabek)
<Lieber erleide ich die Qual und die Pein der Hölle als im Himmel leben zu müssen unter diesen grausamsten aller Menschen.> (H.Jestrabek)
1512: Spanish occupation of Jamaica
(Reinhard, vol.II, p.49)
Panama in about 1512: Nuñez de Balboa is told from the natives that behind the hills would be big ocean and that also gold could be found there. Balboa believes since then that a successful expedition to the big unknown sea would bring him an advantage at the Spanish king [web06].
Conquest mentality: "Career" by mass murder
[In this way already the Roman commanders were making their career]:
The sea captains and conquerers are behaving like this:
-- the Spanish occupant criminals are reinvesting their pray among others with new expeditions with new robbery and with this they are partly loosing the whole money also when their fame is rising
-- the occupant criminals are investing the pray into prestige buildings for representing their social rise also in a outer form
->> this conquest is happening partly only for the career from the low noble families reaching the highest ranks of aristocracy
->> the model of this behavior are also old knight novels like "Amadis de Gaula" where myths, hero ideals and eager belief are spread, and this has it's effect even in the sailor's language
->> the ecclesiastic staff has partly to brake this "eager belief" (Reinhard, vol.II, p.49) [better war addiction, money addiction and fame addiction, but they are hardly successful]
"West India" 1512: Mass death of the natives ("Indios") is fully going on (Reinhard, vol.II, p.62) but now the occupied territories are also suffering by this mass death a heavy economic damage because dead people cannot be ordered for work... (Reinhard, vol.II, p.64)
Cuba 1512: Havana is becoming a Spanish military main base of the Spanish conquest (Huby, p.65) and Cuba in general is becoming a switching center for Spanish expeditions to the coast lines of the Mexican Gulf now (Reinhard, vol.II, p.47). Before it was Santo Domingo, now Havana becomes the Spanish center of "West India" (Reinhard, vol.II, p.49).
[All the slave work of the natives for building houses of stones for the criminal white "Christians" is not mentioned].
Map of Cuba with the capital Habana / Havana 
Impressions from Havana [17-21]
Cuba, Havana: central square
Cuba: White House
Cuba Havana, promenade
Cuba: a man with a bike in the background
Cuba, Havana: portrait of a women and a crowd in the background
"America" trade: importation of European goods and exploitation of the Caribbean
since 1512 appr.
The Spanish are importing European cultivated plants (grains) and domestic animals as cows, horses and sheep into South "America" which are spreading rapidly. But the main focus is headed on the exploitation of the noble metals. The so called "silver fleets" are created leaving the island of Hispañola to Cadiz in Spain. English, Dutch and French are organizing attacks (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.277).
Map of Mr. Waldseemüller with the remark "TERRA NOVA" - Spain: "Protection" laws for natives ("requerimiento") - natives remaining without protection against Spanish occupants and slave hunters - Bartolomé de las Casas presenting his idea of more African slaves - Magellan preparing for a tour around the world for the Spanish Crown - Aztec expansion - Balboa reaching Panama and the Pacific - Inca expansion up to Ecuador
1513: World map of Martin Waldseemüller and the "New World" ("Terra Nova")
Map of Piri Re'i (Turkish map): Atlantic
Turkish seafaring is hardly existing in the "Christian" sources. According to writer Armin Risi this map of Piri Re'i is showing Antarctica without ice shelf. This would mean that this map would be of a time of before our civilization of 12,000 years ago, yet of a time before the mega catastrophe [web13].
Order of the Spanish Crown in 1513 for an "equality" of "Christian" natives - order to a slavery with lethal consequences with cannibal natives
Spanish Crown is ordering in an "Warning" ("requerimiento") the "equality" of the natives. Before the native is shot or enslaved, then the "warning" has to be presented to him and there should be given the occasion for a a conversion or subjugation [!] under the royal rule.
Only when conversion and subjugation are rejected then the Spaniard should be allowed to use violence (Reinhard, vol.II, p.58). The text:
<[...] Über alle diese Völker gab der Herr, unser Gott, einem, der St. Petrus genannt wurde, das Amt, der Herr und Vorgesetzte aller Menschen der Welt zu sein [...] und alle Völker zu richten und zu regieren, Christen, Mauren, Juden und Heiden, und welchen Glaubens sie auch wären [...]
Einer der früheren Päpste, der an seiner Stelle in dieser Würde und auf dem genannten Thron als Herr der Welt nachfolgte, machte diese Inseln und dieses Festland des Weltmeeres [...] dem König und der Königin und ihren Nachfolgern zum Geschenk [...], so dass also ihre Hoheiten Könige und Herren dieser Inseln und des Festlandes sind [...] Deshalb bitte ich euch [...], die Kirche als Herrin anzuerkennen und [...] den [...] Papst [...] in ihrem Namen und den König und die Königin [...] an seiner Statt [...] und Freiheit zu geben, dass diese Ordensleute euch das Gesagte erklären und predigen.
Wenn ihr dies tut, [...] werden ihre Hoheiten und ich in ihrem Namen euch mit aller Zuneigung und Liebe aufnehmen und werden euch eure Frauen und Kinder und Güter lassen, frei von aller Knechtschaft [...] und man wird euch nicht zwingen, Christen zu werden, wenn ihr nicht, über die Wahrheit unterrichtet, selbst euch bekehren wollt [...]
Wenn ihr es aber nicht tut [...], so tue ich euch kund, dass ich mit der Hilfe Gottes [...] euch bekriegen [...] und euch unterwerfen werde unter das Joch und den Gehorsam der Kirche und ihrer Hoheiten. Und eure Personen und eure Frauen und Kinder werde ich gefangen nehmen und zu Sklaven machen und sie als solche verkaufen [...] wie Untergebene, die nicht gehorchen und ihren Herrn nicht anerkennen wollen [...] und ich erkläre, dass die Tötungen und Schäden, die sich daraus ergeben werden, von euch verschuldet sind und nicht von seiner Hoheit, noch von den Herren, die mit mir gekommen sind [...]> (Reinhard II., S.59).
<[...] Lord, our God, the ruler over all those peoples, gave to one called Holy Peter the office for being the Lord and master of all humans of the world [...] and to be the judge for all peoples governing them, Christians, Muslims, Jews and non-believers, not important which belief they had [...]
One of the early popes who was one of his successors on the throne of Lord gave these islands and this continent [...] to the king and the queen and to their successors as a gift [...] thus Royal Highnes are kings and masters of these islands and of the continent [...] Therefore I plead you [...] to acknowledge the Church as the master and [...] the [...] Pope [...] in the name of the Church, and the king and the queen [...] as it's representatives [...] and giving liberties that these order's people will preach and explain you the content.
When you do this, [...] Your Majesty and I will adopt you in it's name with all affection and love and we will leave you with your wives and children and goods, free from all servitude and slavery [...] and you will not be forced to be Christians when you will not want this - being instructed about the truth [...]
But when you will not to it [...] then I will announce you that I will make war against you [...] with the help of the Lord, and I will subdue you with the yoke and obedience of the Church and their Majesties. And your persons and wives and children will be detained and converted into slaves and will be sold as slaves [...] as servants who did not obey and who did not recognize their Lord [...] and I declare that for all the killings and damages which result with this the blame will fall on you and not by it's Majesty, nor from the Lords who have come with me [...]> (Reinhard, vol.II, p.59).
The extortion: Concretely this "warning" ("requerimiento" is headed against some cannibal tribes of the Caribs. But practically all natives are extorted with a conversion now.
The mass calumny: Many natives are called "Caribs" / cannibals who seem to be appropriate for being enslaved but the affected are not at all "Caribs".
-- at the same time slave expeditions in not "colonized" territories are just normal
-- some missioners who was preaching against slavery and who was living with the natives is killed by the natives because other Spanish slave hunters hijacked other members of the same tribe
-- all trials for the introduction of a control are for nothing (Reinhard, vol.II, p.59).
Bartholomé de las Casas 1513: proposal of an education for the natives and slavery with blacks from Africa
Casas is making a new proposal for a rule of the native's life:
-- creation of communities with a self-sufficiency and these communities should be mixed with one Spanish and five native families thus communities of about 240 people would be created with an absolute equality
-- introduction of black slaves for the heavy work in mines and this work would be "unavoidable"
->> later Casas is revoking his proposal for the enslavement of the blacks (Reinhard, vol.II, p.64) [but then it's too late...]
Bartolomé de las Casas writing 
Statue of Bartholomé de las Casas in Antigua in Guatemala 
Magellan is copying Columbus and Vasco da Gama. In 1513 he is pleading the king of Portugal that this would finance him a corresponding expedition to South "America". But Portugal is rejecting this proposal because conflicts with Spain could be [web14].
Cristóbal de Haro, member of the merchant's family of Haro from the merchant's town of Burgos with relations to Portugal, Antwerp and Upper Germany is bringing Magellan to Spanish services in 1513. Now the name is hispanized being Fernando de Magellanes (Reinhard, vol.II, p.46).
During the following years Magellan is studying astronomy and navigation for getting a permission for an expedition for the "west way" around the globe with the Spanish king [web14].
Florida: A Spanish expedition under the leadership of Poncé de León is reaching [from Hispañola or Cuba] the coast of Florida (Reinhard, vol.II, p.46).
Poncé de León and Florida
Statue of Poncé de Leon in Saint Augustine, Florida . The original is in San Juan, Puerto Rico.
Stamp with Poncé de León of 1982, in the background Florida 
Spanish stamp with Poncé de León 
The rich history web site www.kartoffel-geschichte.de is remarking about Poncé de León he had followed a legend about springs where an eternal youth was promised:
Spain, Columbus: Displacement of the grave to Sevilla: The skeletal remains are brought to Sevilla where also his son Diego has got his grave [web16].
<Florida wurde entdeckt, weil man die Quelle der ewigen Jugend sucht. Fernández de Ovieda schrieb: »Damals wurde die Sage von einer Quelle verbreitet, welche alte Leute die Jugend wiedergewinnen lasse. Das war im Jahr 1512. So eindringlich wurde die Sage von den Indianern dort verbreitet und bezeugt, daß Kapitän Juan Ponce mit seinen Leuten und Karavellen sechs Monate lang verschollen war, dieweil er jene Quelle suchte. Es war närrisch von den Indianern, von solcher Quelle zu erzählen, aber noch viel törichter von den Christen, daran zu glauben und ihre Zeit mit Suchen zu verschwenden.> [web15] )
<Florida was detected because they were looking for the spring of eternal youth. Fernández de Ovieda wrote: "In those times the legend of a source was spread that old people could regain their youth again. This was in 1512. This legend was spread by the natives there in a very forceful way and there were testimonies that captain Juan Ponce was lost with his men and caravels during 6 months when he was looking for this spring. It was crazy that the natives were telling about such springs but it was even more crazy of the Christians to believe in it wasting their time with such expeditions.> [web15]
Aztecs in 1513: Occupation of Tezcoco: Moctezuma II is interfering at his ally Tezcoco when there are throne quarrels and he lets occupy Tezcoco. Tezcoco is loosing it's autonomy.
The Aztec Empire is not a unified completed empire. It is an accumulation of heterogeneous states. These states are subordinating voluntarily. They can continue with their rulers and customs. There is only a tax office introduced which is responsible for the encashment of the tax [web17].
Panama 1513 : Balboa reaching the Pacific
With 190 Spaniards and 1,000 natives the expedition of Nuñez de Balboa is mastering the 45 miles of jungle between Caribbean and Pacific (Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Nunez de Balboa).
Vasco Nuñez de Balboa is crossing the isthmus of Panama detecting the other side calling it "South Sea" (Reinhard, vol.II, p.46,49).
Francisco Pizarro is one of the members of this expedition [web7].
On September 25, 1513, Balboa is on hill watching the Pacific as the first European from a point in "America" calling it "South Sea". Four days later the expedition is reaching the coast line occupying the beach in the name of the Spanish Crown by bathing in the sea [web07].
Balboa and Panama
Map with the position of Panama between Caribbean and Pacific 
Map of Panama with the position of the jungle of Darien and Panama City / Balboa 
Nuñez de Balboa, profile 
Nuñez de Balboa is dreaming of a high fame which he would deserve now. But returning to the coast line of Darien the situation has already changed. In Darien a new governor was appointed. And now the conflicts will not wait for a long time [web07].
Peru, Inca 1513: Huayna Capac is subduing Ecuador, the country around Quito (Ecuador) (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.223).
Map with the position of Ecuador 
Germany: Indulgence for a Saint Peter's church provoking a rebellion of Luther - occupation of Panama "completed" - Charles of Austria in Burgundy - Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán
Vatican-Germany: Pope Leo X is prolonging the indulgence possibility in Mayence (Mainz) for collecting the money for the new construction of the Saint Peter's Church. Now Luther is making his rebellion against the indulgence commissioner of the archbishop of Mayence, Mr. Tetzel (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.231).
Spain-Cuba: Diaz del Castillo is emigrating to "America" and in 1514 with 22 years he is sailing on own expense to Cuba for emigration (Huby, p.109).
Panama 1514: The Spanish occupation is completed (Reinhard, vol.II, p.49).
Spain-France 1515: Charles, son of king Ferdinand, becomes duke of Burgundy (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.237).
Aztecs: administration reform
Moctezuma II is performing an administration reform for "standardizing" the state [web17].
In 1515 the Aztec town of Tenochtitlán is reaching an absolute predominance within the alliance of three towns around the lake of Mexico [web18].
Map with the position of Tenochtitlan in the middle of the lake 
Spain: beginning of the government of Charles V
In 1516 Charles V is inheriting from king Ferdinand a worldwide Spanish Empire where "sun is never going down" (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.237).
During his government all gold being brought from "West India" should be wasted in his "policy" for wars. The complete economy in Europe has normalized in this time, the big crisis of 1400 has overcome definitely (Reinhard, vol.II, p.49)
Charles V 
Magellan's argument for a sailing tour around the world: the quarrel about Moluccas Islands - Spanish expedition to Yucatán - last remnants of natives on Hispañola - Balboa in Panama is beheaded by a rival - Luther's 95 thesis in Wittenberg against the Pope - first Aztec expansion
Spain-Portugal: quarrel about the Moluccas Islands
In the royal courts of Spain and Portugal there is a quarrel about the Moluccas Island coming up because the reverse of the world with the papal line of Pope Alexander VI of 1494 cannot be defined precisely [web11].
The Portuguese king is claiming all islands there in the Far East for his sphere. But Mr. Magellan has got the thesis that many of these islands - with the rich Spice Islands of the Moluccas inclusive - would be Spanish territory when there would be a precise measuring. He is claiming that the Portuguese maps would be a fake [web11].
Now Mr. Magellan is offering the Spanish king his wisdom which he had accumulated during his trips to India. He hopes that he could find the passage to the Spice Islands at the top of South "America". Finally Charles V is agreeing to his project for performing a sailing tour around the world [web11].
Tordesillas Line of 1494
Map with the Tordesillas Line of the Tordesillas Treaty, the "Papal Line" of 1494 
The border line of the Tordesillas Treaty of 1494 shows that the Moluccas Islands are on the Portuguese side. But in those times this was not so clear.
Mexico, Yucatán: There is a Spanish expedition under the Spanish sea captain Hernández de Córdoba following an order of the governor of Cuba, Diego Velásquez. The leader of the expedition Hernández is making precise "records" about the local Maya high cultures (Reinhard, vol.II, p.47) [and probably he is also describing how they can be eliminated in the most favorable way].
Hernandez de Cordoba 
Map with Maya culture on Yucatán peninsula 
(People speaking Spanish have a precious link about natives in North, Central and South "America" here: http://mapahumano.fiestras.com [mapa humano = "human web site"]).
American Holocaust: yet 1,000 natives on Hispañola
Jestrabek tells it like this:
"The Spanish conquerers were behaving like cannibals to the natives. When the island of Haiti had 1.1 million inhabitants before - then in 1510 there were 46,000 yet of them, and in 1517 there were just 1,000 of them left."
(German text: "Wie Menschenfresser benahmen sich die spanischen Eroberer. Hatte die Insel Haiti vorher rund 1,1 Millionen Einwohner - waren es 1510 noch 46.000 und 1517 gerade noch 1000 Überlebende!" (Jestrabek).Panama: Nunez de Balboa is beheaded by the rival in a quarrel with the other governor because of a defamation he had wanted a rebellion [web07].
[As it seems strange the "Christian" historians are never rating such a behavior as being a cannibal...]
Panama, map of 1640 with sea and hills 
Map of Panama of 1640 with the locations of San Sebastian de Buenavista and Santa Maria de la Antiguq del Darien, being installed coming from San Sebastian over the Darien Gulf. Also the town of Acla can be found where Balboa was beheaded. And also the Atrato River can be found on the map.
Oct 31, 1517
Germany: Luther's posting of 95 thesis against the Pope in Europe
above all against indulgence.
Martin Luther, bronze relief 
Martin Luther, portrait 
<>> after having posted his 96 thesis in Germany Luther is denounced and the Pope is making a lawsuit against him in Rome, but the Elector Friedrich the Wise is protecting Luther (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.231).
A precise depiction of the events means that there was no posting of thesis at the church's door:
As the rich data base web site www.kartoffel-geschichte.de is writing the doubts that Luther had ever posted his 95 thesis at the church's door are right:
<Schon vor dem 31.10.1517 hatte Luther sich in Predigten gegen den Ablasshandel ausgesprochen. An diesem Tage aber schreibt er, nachdem er eine Instruktionsschrift für Ablasshändler gelesen hat, an seine kirchlichen Vorgesetzten. Er hofft, damit den Missstand beheben zu können. Den Briefen legt er 95 Thesen bei, die als Grundlage für eine Disputation zu diesem Thema dienen sollten.
Dass Luther an besagtem Tag seine Thesen mit lauten Hammerschlägen an die Tür der Schlosskirche zu Wittenberg genagelt haben soll, gehört aber wohl in das Reich der Legenden.> [web19]
<Already before this October 31, 1517, Luther was clearly making statements against indulgence in his speeches. But this day - after having analyzed an instruction essay about indulgence he is writing to his ecclesial superior. With this action he is hoping to eliminate the grievances. To this letter he is adding 95 thesis as a base for a discussion about this topic.
The telling that Luther had posted his thesis at the castle's door with loud hammer blows is just a legend for sure.> [web19].
(Text in German:
<Keiner will’s gesehen haben, als Luther am Vorabend von Allerseelen 1517 seine 95 Thesen angeblich an die Tür nagelte; er selbst spricht nie von dieser heroischen Tat. Wohl, weil’s nicht war, weil’s nicht sein konnte. Melanchthon erfindet diese Geschichte später. Der interessierte Leser möge in die Lutherstadt Wittenberg fahren und sich die dort (in Metall geprägten) 95 Thesen ansehen und dann noch die Tür zur Schloßkirche. Erstens geht’s schon nicht aus Platzgründen, zweitens, so großes Papier gab’s damals gar nicht. Also konnte er die Thesen nicht an der Schloßtür befestigen, zumal dies völlig ungewöhnlich war, eine Meinungsäußerung (und mehr war’s ja nicht zu diesem Zeitpunkt) in dieser Form zu disputieren.> [web15])
<No one wants having seen it that Luther was fixing his 95 thesis at the door in 1517 at the day before All Soul's Day; he himself is never speaking about such a heroic action. Well, because there was no action, because it could not be. Melanchthon is inventing this story later. The interested reader can go to Wittenberg - the Luther's town - and can watch there the 95 thesis (which are carved in metal) and then one can also see the castle's door. First just by the reason of space this action never could be, and secondly there was not a so long paper in those times. Thus these thesis were never posted at the castle's door because this was absolutely uncommon to utter a differing meaning (and it was not more at this time) in public like this.> [web15]
Castle church in Wittenberg 
Door of the castle church in Wittenberg where according to Melanchthon Luther was presenting his thesis paper 
Map of Germany, position of Wittenberg 
[The Reformation with Luther will have heavy consequences because the Catholic Church (Rome) wants to defend it's world wide power than and there will be wars for centuries and the Catholics and Protestants will even compete in colonialism mutually making wars on "foreign" territories. Church is committing crimes without end with this...]
Mexico: In 1517/1518 the Spanish sea pirates of the Caribbean are making first "detection tours" to Yucatán and to the Aztecs. Member of the expedition is also Diaz del Castillo. He is coming back as a complete poor without anything to Cuba (Huby, p.109).
In 1517/1518 a Spanish expedition is touching the advanced civilization of the Aztecs (Reinhard, vol.II, p.51).
Luther has to take a flight - Spanish Aztec expedition and projected occupation of the Aztec Empire - treaty between Charles V and Magellan for a sailing trip around the world - Magellan starting against the rebellion of the crew - Cortés preparing the occupation of Mexico
Augsburg in Germany: On a national assembly Luther is defamed by the papal legate Cajetan.
->> Luther is not revoking his thesis
->> Luther is taking a flight but is appealing that there must be a dispute in form of a general council (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.231).
Mexico: A Spanish expedition under the Spanish sea captain Juan de Grijalba is advancing to the Aztec coast line following an order of the Cuban governor Diego Velásquez. "Precise records" are made about this local advanced culture (Reinhard, vol.II, p.47) [and these records can also be used to destroy this Aztec Empire for sure].
Spy Grijalva / Grijalba
Map of the expedition of Juan de Grijalba in 1518 
Juan de Grijalva / Grijalba [45,46]
End of 1518
Then the Cuban governor Diego Velásquez is preparing an expedition against the Aztec Empire in Mexico (Reinhard, vol.II, p.51). As the commander Cortés is foreseen. Velásquez lis mistrusting to this ambitions Cortés soon and wants to cancel this expedition [web10].
Spain, looking for the "west way": "Treaty of Valladolid" between Charles V and Magellan
Now in 1518 with a better qualification and a better preparation Magellan is presented to the Spanish Crown. The king is agreeing to a sailing tour around the world. The preparations are lasting a complete year [web14].
Magellan is ensured 5 ships with 238 (or 265) crew members. The Crown is financing 1/4, Cristóbal de Haro 3/4. It seems also probably that some Germans from Welser and Fugger family are participating in this venture (Reinhard, vol.II, p.46).
Magellan: Start of Magellan's expedition
(Reinhard, vol.II, p.46)
Ossian means that the starting date from Sevilla would be August 10, 1519 [web11]. Waesch is indicating September 1519 [web14].
On five caravels are 260 [?] men. This venture is for this time with the same risk like the moon flight of 1968 (Huby, p.81) [which was only a big show in the moon hall].
The leading role of Magellan
This Mr. Magellan is 38 years old now and has survived any storm until these days, and he has collected really much experience with many trips to India and "detection trips" round of Africa. He is a warhorse and an adventurer who is never capitulating. His chronicler is Pigafetta (Huby, p.82). It's Magellan's dream to be mentioned in the world's history being rated like Vasco de Gama. Magellan wants to perform an epoch-making work (Huby, p.81).
Magellan is not a big man, but little, with black hair, he is limping because of a war injury [from Africa]. As a Portuguese serving for the Spanish Crown he wants to sail around the world for 18 years old Charles V, and he also wants to prove with this that the world is a globe - not only brining spices from the Moluccas Islands which should be richer than whole India.
At the same time Magellan has authority problems with his crew. The Spanish crew members are arguing that Magellan could be a Portuguese spy who wants use the Spanish flag for the occupation of new properties for Portugal. For example the crew was denying during a long time to sail under Magellan. Only by the explicit order of the Spanish king is bringing the crew for him! Additionally this crew does not know where the trip is going. Magellan - as also the king - they are keeping the goal secret (Huby, p.81).
Stopover is Teneriffa - and then the changing course
On Teneriffa provision is loaded (Huby, p.81). Then the course around Africa is followed first and suddenly Magellan is changing the course to South South East. First the crew is denying this. Only with iron authority Magellan can get through but keeping secret his goals yet (Huby, p.81).
[In many parts of the society the idea was spread that Earth would be a plate yet].
Cuba: Diego de Velásquez, the Cuban "governor" is revoking the appointment of Cortés for being a general captain of the expedition against the Aztec Empire in Mexico.
->> Cortés is ignoring the orders and is even convincing the brother-in-law of the governor to keep this revoking of Velásquez secret so the crew will not hear of it (Huby, p.95)
->> Cortés has that much money that he can equip 7 of 10 ships by himself (Reinhard, vol.II, p.51)
->> Cortés is collecting crew members by his own and is providing the necessary material for starting the expedition against the Aztecs (Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Hernando Cortez).
The style of leadership of Cortés is like this:
oo he is a master of leading humans with force of will and courage
oo he is a political natural talent with tactic capacities
oo he has not many scruples also using his killer instinct for intimidating the crew or the enemy (Reinhard, vol.II, p.51).
Hernán Cortés 
Magellan at the equator - Luther's rupture with Rome - Charles V being elected as an Emperor against Francis I - Charles' project of a "Universal Empire" against nationalism, protestants and the Pope - Da Gama becoming an earl - foundation of Panama Town - native golden art exhibition in Europe
Magellan's expedition: At the beginning of 1519 Magellan's fleet is crossing the equator. Magellan has to teach his crew that after passing the equator there will not a fall or crash (Huby, p.81).
Germany, Luther: In Leipzig there is a council with a quarrel discussion between Karlstadt, Luther and his main enemy Johann Eck (1486-1543), professor in Ingolstadt. Luther is insisting in his main thesis
-- that any papal indulgence is illegal
-- that the ecclesial traditions are not true
-- that a council is not impeccable.
->> Luther and his group are braking with Rome (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.231).
Europe, Emperor's election: Charles V is winning the Emperor's election with an intrigue against Francis I from France. Charles V is winning by the help of Fugger and Welser families. Charles V is becoming German "Kaiser" of the "Holy Roman Empire" now with the restriction being obliged to "German liberal politics" ("Libertät"). The election legislation says:
-- the privileges of the dukes have to be respected
-- the Electors have to permit the laws, treaties and taxes concerning the Empire's policy
-- foreign freelancers are not allowed (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.237).
Here are two "high" blockhead nobles who are fighting each other with intrigues and wars instead of bringing more wealth to the world:
Charles V , king of Spain and by an intrigue he is also Emperor of Germany
Francis I of France 
Charles V has got an advisor great chancellor Mr. Gattinara. Charles V means his task as an Emperor would be the restoration of the medieval universal empire with "modern means" with freelancers and officials. And it's preprogrammed that this policy of Charles V will provoke it's enemies:
-- by European national states, above all France
-- by the German states, above all the protestant Princes of the Holy Roman Empire
-- by Turkey
-- by the Pope himself who wants to limit Charles V (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.237).
Portugal: Da Gama is promoted for being an earl of Vidigueira [web20].
Panama: "Foundation" of the town of Panama. Pizarro is becoming the mayor until 1523 (Reinhard vol. II, p.50; and [web07])
Europa: Exhibition of native golden art
In this exhibition about golden art Mr. Albrecht Dürer is reporting about the high developed handicraft work of the natives:
<These items are all gorgeous [...] and I was wondering about these native hereditary skills of humans in foreign countries.> (Huby, p.98).
(German text: <Diese Dinge sind alle köstlich [...] und ich hab' mich verwundert ob der subtilen Ingenia [angeborene Fähigkeiten] der Menschen in fremden Ländern.> (Huby, S.98)
Golden art of the "natives"
Albrecht Dürer, self portrait 
Golden Maya necklace 
Golden pendant for a Maya necklace 
Golden jewelry from natives in Costa Rica ("Rich Coast") 
[Well, but European artists were never fighting this colonialism].
And now the next destruction of cultures with holocaust against natives is following in the name of "Christianity": in Mexico.
[web01] http://www.lagrangetower.com/domingo_i.htm (April 2005)
[web02] http://www.suncaribbean.net/rd_laCapital_ZC_mapaMurallas_09fortOzama.htm (April 2005)
[web03] http://www.suncaribbean.net/rd_laCapital_ZC_mapaMurallas_10torreOmenaje.htm (April 2005).
[web04] Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Christopher Kolumbus)
[web05] http://www.caribbean-islander.com/sd_fortaleza.htm (April 2005)
[web06] Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Vasco Nunez de Balboa)
[web07] Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Francisco Pizarro)
[web08] Internet: Encarta Online Concise: article: Cortés, Hernán).
[web09] Internet: M.Waesch: Hernando Cortez).
[web10] Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Hernando Cortez).
[web11] Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Ferdinand Magellan)
[web12] Antje Baumann: mesoamerika/maya-uxmal.htm (Stand 1999); today: www.indianer-welt.de
[web13] In: Armin Risi: Der multidimensionale Kosmos, Band 3: Machtwechsel auf der Erde, p.169
[web14] Internet: M.Waesch: Ferdinand Magellan.
[web16] Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Christopher Kolumbus
[web17] Antje Baumann: mesoamerika/azteken-hoehepunkt.htm (estate 1999); new: www.indianer-welt.de (April 2005)
[web18] A.Baumann: mesoamerika/azteken-zeittafel.htm (estate 1999); new: www.indianer-welt.de)
[web20] Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Vasco da Gama
[web22] conclusion Palomino
 Santo Domingo: fortress of Ozama with the "Honoring tower" ("Torre de Homenaje"), 1505: Thomas Hachmeister:
http://www.caribbean-islander.com/sd_fortaleza.htm (April 2005)
 World map of Giovanni Contarini, drawing with the coast lines of the eastern coast of the "America":
 World map of Mr. Waldseemüller with a first hypothetic west coast for "America": http://www.henry-davis.com/MAPS/Ren/Ren1/310.html (April 2005)
 Detail of Waldseemüller's map with the name "AMERICA": http://www.henry-davis.com/MAPS/Ren/Ren1/310.A.html (April 2005)
 This World map by Rosselli is going on admitting that Europe would be next to Asia: http://www.capurromrc.it/mappe/!0151rosselli.html (Dezember 2005)
 Ponce de Leon / León, Spanish colonialist in Puerto Rico:
http://hillside.needham.k12.ma.us/cyberventues/mckenna_explorers/juan_ponce_de_leon/juan_ponce_de_leon.htm (April 2005)
[7,8] Nunez / Nuñez de Balboa, profiles, Spanish colonialist in the Caribbean:
http://www.lkgeorge.org/IntermediateI/Explorers/balboa.htm (April 2005)
http://www.prayextremadura.info/id168.htm (April 2005)
 Francisco Pizarro, portrait, Spanish colonialist in the Caribbean: http://www.dhistoria.com/historia/devocion_de_pizarro_a_guadalupe.htm (April 2005)
 Colonial church in Santo Domingo: http://de.encarta.msn.com/media_461513915_761576758_-1_1/Kirche_Santo_Domingo_Mexiko.html (April 2005)
 Jakob Fugger the Rich from Augsburg, one of the traders during colonialism times: http://www.gamepack.nl/gamepack/rec-fug1.html (April 2005)
 Diego Colon, son of Columbus and Spanish colonialist on Cuba: Zayas Publishing: http://www.zayaspublishing.com/biblioteca/05/default.asp (April 2005)
 Diego Velasquez, Spanish colonialist on Cuba: http://www.ignatiushistory.info/childhood.html (April 2005)
 Satellite photo with the peninsula of Yucatán next to Cuba: http://www.luismarianofernandez.com/PAGINAS/AtlantidaEnCuba2.html (April 2005)
 King Ferdinand I of Portugal: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_I._%28Portugal%29 (April 2005)
 Map of Cuba with the capital Habana / Havana: http://web.chi.es/isidro/lugares/cuba/cuba.htm (April 2005)
[17-21] Impressions from Cuba:
-- central square of Havana: http://www.havana-rentals.com/dir_independententrance_spa.htm (April 2005)
-- White House in Havana: http://www.havana-rentals.com/dir_independententrance_spa.htm (April 2005)
-- promenade in Havana: http://havanarentals.tripod.com/carlos_hav_spa.htm (April 2005)
-- Cuban man and bycicle in Havana: http://www.havana-rentals.com/gustavo_hav_spa.htm (April 2005)
-- young lady and crowd in Havana: http://www.havana-rentals.com/gustavo_hav_spa.htm (April 2005)
 Tabula Terre Nove [map of the New World], admiral's map by Mr. Martin Waldseemüller of 1513:
http://www.henry-davis.com/MAPS/Ren/Ren1/320A.html (April 2005)
 world map by Piri Re'i (Turkey): left the coast lines of "America", right of western Africa: http://www.henry-davis.com/MAPS/Ren/Ren1/322.html (December 2005)
 Bartolomé de las Casas writing: http://www.mgar.net/var/lascasas.htm (April 2005)
 statue of Bartholomé de las Casas in Antigua, Guatemala: http://www.ddbstock.com/largeimage/antigua.html (April 2005)
 statue of Poncé de Leon in Saint Augustine, Florida: http://www.staugustine.com/compass/deleon.shtml (April 2005)
 stamp with Poncé de León of 1982, in the background Florida: http://www.yunque.net/lgonzalez/Ponce.htm (April 2005)
 Spanish stamp with Poncé de León: http://www.costabellacollection.com/bellavista/coastal.php (April 2005)
 Map with the position of Panama between Caribbean and Pacific: http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_PA.aspx (April 2005)
 Map of Panama with the position of the jungle of Darien and Panama City / Balboa:
http://www.clippercruisesvacationguide.com/costa-rica-darien-jungle-cruise.html (April 2005)
 Nuñez de Balboa, profile: http://honzak.kluci.cz/gk-historie/gh-1005.phtml (April 2005)
 Map with the position of Ecuador: http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_EC.aspx (April 2005)
 Map with the position of Tenochtitlan in the middle of the lake: Antje Baumann: http://indianer-welt.de/meso/aztek/aztek-kar.htm (April 2005)
 Charles V: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_V._(HRR) (April 2005)
 Map with the Tordesillas Line of the Tordesillas Treaty, the "Papal Line" of 1494: http://www.bigoid.de/conquista/lexikon/tordesillas.htm (April 2005)
 Hernandez de Cordoba: http://www.mexicodesconocido.com.mx/espanol/historia/colonia/detalle.cfm?idpag=4166&idsec=2&idsub=13 (April 2005)
 Map with Maya culture on Yucatán peninsula:
http://mapahumano.fiestras.com/servlet/ContentServer?pagename=R&c=Articulo&cid=988036966544&pubid=982158433476 (April 2005)
 Panama, map of 1640 with sea and hills: http://www.bruce.ruiz.net/PanamaHistory/ vasco_nunez_balboa_2.htm (April 2005)
 Luther, relief:
http://bdeg.sopron.hu/~nme/luther.htm (April 2005)
 Luther, portrait: http://zottel.org/index.html?http://zottel.org/biographien/luther.html (April 2005)
 Castle church in Wittenberg: http://www.luther.de/anschlag.html (April 2005)
 Door of the castle church in Wittenberg: http://www.luther.de/anschlag.html (April 2005)
 Map of Germany, position of Wittenberg: http://www.papillonwelpen.de/Kontakt.html (April 2005)
 Map of the expedition of Juan de Grijalba in 1518: http://www.grijalvo.com/articulos/ybf_Grijalvo_Grijalva_Grijalba_y_Grijalbo.htm (April 2005)
[45,46] Juan de Grijalva / Grijalba:
http://history.smsu.edu/jchuchiak/HST%20397--Theme%2027--Grijalva_expedition.htm (April 2005)
 Magellan: http://allaboutexplorers.com/explorers/magellan.html (April 2005)
 Hernán Cortéz: Dwayne Edward Rourke: http://www.dwayneedwardrourke.com/Pages/1519.html (April 2005)
 Charles V: http://www.rampichini.com/uniter/banal/rifpro2/rifpro8.htm (April 2005)
 Francis I of France: http://www.bundtschuh.de/Knechte.html (April 2005)
 Albrecht Dürer, self portrait: http://www.oldmasterpiece.com/painting-en_883.html (April 2005)
 Golden Maya necklace: http://dosfan.lib.uic.edu/USIA/E-USIA/education/culprop/guatemal/fi/000000d2.htm (April 2005)
 Golden pendant for a Maya necklace: http://dosfan.lib.uic.edu/USIA/E-USIA/education/culprop/guatemal/fi/000000d2.htm (April 2005)
 Golden jewelry from natives in Costa Rica ("Rich Coast"): http://www.calypsotours.com/costarica/history.htm (April 2005)