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Instruction sheet: smoking

Instruction sheet: Smoker's smoke and the damages by passive smoking - smokers must become non-smokers!

75% of the population of Switzerland are non-smokers - they should not be forced to breathe the smoke of the others!

50% of  the children in Germany have to smoke passively and have to accept to be poisoned.

In correspondence to water, the air has to be considered like drinking  water.

It would be lawful to take away the children from stupid smoking parents.

Symbol smokers out!   Main stream smoke (toxic) - second hand smoke / side
              streamsmoke (much more toxic than the main stream smoke)   Skull according to the DIN norm

Compilation of data by Michael Palomino. Photo sources at the end.

Teilen / share:


-- Swiss Federal Department of Health: http://www.rauchenschadet.ch
-- Swiss Lung Leage: http://www.lung.ch
-- Foundation pro aere: http://www.proaere.ch

-- Martin H. Junker: Dissertation ETH Zürich 2000
-- SCARPOL: Studie über Atemwegsbeschwerden und Allergien bei Schulkindern. Bundesamt für Gesundheit 1995. ["Survey about grievances of the airways and allergies with school children. Federal Department of Health 1995"]
-- www.bund.net: Dicke Luft in der guten Stube ["Trouble's brewing in the parlor"]; http://www.bund.net/lab/reddot2/pdf/pos_innenraum.pdf

 nach oben
1. Cigarette smoke is "toxic air pollutant" - peace pipe and mass consumption
2. Second hand smoke / passive smoke: main stream smoke - second hand smoke (side stream smoke)
3. Measurements
4. Mode of action of the smoker's smoke / of passive smoking all in all
5. Each toxic element in the second hand smoke / in the smoke of cigarettes / in the passive smoke
6. The additives in the tobacco also are in the second hand smoke / in the passive smoke
7. The diseases by smoker's smoke / by passive smoking
8. Three joints are that harmful like a box of cigarettes
9. Passive smoker's risk for heart diseases and lung cancer is 30% higher
10. Ban of smoking for parents - passive smoking children
11. Passive smoking doubles the risk for breast cancer of women
12. Animals are also smoking: cancer with domestic animals by passive smoking
13. Waiter passive smoking up to 2 boxes of cigarettes per day
14. Foetus is  smoking during passive smoking - sudden infant death syndrome more often
15. Computers from smokers not repaired because of passive smoking effects
16. Passive smoking favorits diabetes 2
17. Children exposed to passive smoking suffer more often dangerous infections of meningococcus

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Basler Zeitung, Logo

1. Cigarette smoke is "toxic air pollutant" - peace pipe and mass consumption

from: California: Cigarette smoke is "toxic air pollutant"; Basel Newspaper "Basler Zeitung", 27 January 2005

Raucherin mit
                            Hauptstromrauch: Körperverletzung
Woman smoker with main stream smoke. She commits personal injury on herself and on non-smokers.

<San Francisco. DPA/SDA/baz. Cigarette smoke endangering passive smokers is listed as "toxic air pollutant" now. This decision was taken by a State's regulatory agency (Air Resources Board).

By this the so calls "second hand smoke" is classified as dangerous poison, "San Francisco Chronicle" reported on Thursday.

As a first US Federal State California took the decision to make this classification. By this the way is free for strict anti smoking laws. The board reasoned the decision with surveys about the health hazard by passive smoking.

According to the indications of the board smokers in California produce in the air 40 tons of nicotine, 365 tons of contaminants, and 1900 tons carbon monoxide every year.>

[orig. German:
<Zigarettenrauch, der Passivraucher gefährdet, wird in Kalifornien nun in der Liste «giftiger Luftschadstoffe» geführt. Dies entschied eine staatliche Regulierungsbehörde (Air Resources Board).

Danach wird der so genannte «second hand smoke» gefährlichen Giftstoffen gleichgesetzt, berichtete der «San Francisco Chronicle» am Donnerstag.

Als erster US-Staat hat sich Kalifornien zu dieser Klassifizierung entschieden und damit den Weg für striktere Anti- Raucher-Gesetze geebnet. Die Behörde begründete den Schritt mit Studien über die Gesundheitsgefährdung durch passiven Rauch.

Nach Angaben des Ausschusses geben Raucher in Kalifornien jährlich 40 Tonnen Nikotin, 365 Tonnen Schmutzstoffe und 1900 Tonnen Kohlenmonoxid ab.>

From  the peace pipe to mass consumption

Indications by Michael Palomino from seminars of Zurich University (1998) and conclusions:

Smoking in Europe was imitated from the First Nations (natives, "Indians"). It was considered a common ritual of peace (smoking a peace pipe). Medicine of the Early Modern Times meant that tobacco smoke would have a clearing effect on the air and would "clean" the air from unknown disease agents and would eliminate contaminating diseases of which the cause was unknown until this time (plague, smallpox etc.).

Then industrialization came and invented the cigarette and the smoker mass consumption. By the time medicine discovered the true causes of the diseases and also discovered the harmful effect of smoking. It cannot be understood that the governments have not prohibited smoking until now. Smokers who feel pursued can become non-smokers at any time or can found smoking islands. Until now non-smokers are the groups who have to found non-smoker's islands.


Basically: Smoking is poison - fresh air is a base right

Glärnisch with fresh
                            air (Switzerland)
Glärnisch with fresh air (Switzerland)

<In December 1992 after a comprising and critical valuation of all presented data the American Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) listed passive smoking in the list of the well-known human cancer-causing pollutants.>

<In 1998 the Senate's Commission for examination of harmful working elements [in Germany] has admitted passive smoke in the pollutant class 1 and by this passive smoking was classified "evidentially as cancer-causing for human beings".>

In 1998 MAK Commission (Senate's Commission for Examination of Harmful Working Elements) [Senatskommission zur Prüfung gesundheitsschädlicher Arbeitsstoffe der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft] classified the tobacco smoke at one's place of work as a cancer-causing working element with the highest danger class. [MAK="maximal concentration at the place of work (maximale Arbeitsplatzkonzentration)].
(Schutz vor Passivrauchen am Arbeitsplatz: http://www.lfas.bayern.de/technischer_as/arbeitsstaetten_plaetze/arbeitsstaetten/nichtraucher/nichtrauch.htm)

"Justice has to consider breathing air like drinking water."

Tobacco propaganda is a propaganda for intoxication of the population and must be prohibited. Smoking on official localities must be prohibited [and there have to be found healthy substitute actions].

An absolute prohibition of smoking in Switzerland would foster health regionwide and would be a multiple gain for the country by saving costs for health, considering the low costs for the retraining of employees in the tobacco industry. There is no absolute right of smoking, and there is no right of bodily injury of persons on the sidelines, either.Smoke of cigarettes is that aggressive that only a spacial separation of the smokers from the non-smokers can safe health of non-smokers. According to the environmental protection law smoking is allowed nowhere because human beings are part of the environment.
(Helmut E. Lubbers an den Bundesrat und an das Bundesamt für Gesundheit BAG [Helmut E. Lubbers to the Federal Government and to the Federal Health Board of Switzerland BAG]: 26.6.2004: http://www.ecoglobe.ch/tobacco/d/verordnung4626.htm)

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2. Second hand smoke / passive smoke: main stream smoke - second hand smoke (side stream smoke)

The number of pollutants in the second hand smoke / in the passive smoke

An arrogant smoker is
                            blowing out, and the bodily injury he is
                            committing on himself and on non-smoking
                            persons is not important for him...

An arrogant smoker is blowing out, and the bodily injury he is committing on himself and on non-smoking persons is not important for him...

It is estimated that tobacco smoke is composed by 3,500 different elements. Some elements like water vapor and carbon dioxide are no problem, but others have a very damaging effect on human organism.

<Until today there have been identified more than 3,800 singular components in tobacco smoke.>

<In tobacco smoke there are in round terms 3,800 pollutants (for example plutonium and cadmium) fostering many diseases, also cancer.>

All in all there are 4000 pollutants, 40 of them are cancer-causing.
(Passivrauch: Eigenschaften und Folgen; http://www.proaere.ch/d/data/data_36.pdf)

All in all there are over 4800 elements, 70 of them are cancer-causing.

All in all tobacco smoke is composed of 4000 elements, 88% gases, 12% finest particles, lighter than common dust.

The gases of the tobacco smoke provoke inflammations.
(Nichtraucherschutz ist Gesundheitsschutz: http://www.who-nichtrauchertag.de/html/wnrt01_nichtraucherschutz.html)

Second  hand smoke / passive smoke / second hand smoke is composed by breathed smoke [main stream smoke] and second hand smoke / side stream smoke:

Hauptstromrauch -
-- smoke which is breathed and exhaled by the smoking persons [the main stream smoke]

-- smoke which is produced by burning the cigarette on the top of the cigarette

the so called second hand smoke resp. side stream smoke.

<Tobacco smoke is the most dangerous avoidable pollutant in the interior of the house.>

Factor house building of the "civilization" and smoker's smoke / second hand smoke (side stream smoke)

The house building is sharpening the situation of cigarette smoke - compared with the smoking ceremonies of the First Nations (natives, "Indians") who lived in teepee tents - or in the tropical zones - are living in light wooden houses.

On an average the human beings of the domestic "civilization" stay more than 80% of their time in closed rooms. Human beings of today are confronted by higher pollution than in times of huts and open-air cooking.

Babies in house settlements of today stay more than 90% in the flats. By this air quality in the rooms is extremely important [as also the air at one's place of work is decisive for health of working population].

Pollutants in the air of the rooms are mixed by smoke of cigarettes, pollutants from furniture, floor covering, colours, wallpapers and mildews.

Second hand smoke / passive smoke is everywhere

As soon smoke is mixing with the air of the room, the pollutants are scattered in the whole room.

Only one hour of intensive smoking already is sufficient to contaminate the air of an average room. Cancer-causing pollutants and contention of carbon monoxide can get easily much over the limit of tolerance, and the volume of fine dust can be increased tenfold in this short time.

Candles aggravate the situation. The idea that a lighted candle would "eat" the cigarette smoke, is wrong. The air is moving by the lighted candle, but all in all the concentration of dust can rise by the lighted candle yet.

Smoker's smoke with second hand smoke (passive smoke) is coming through all door cracks and gaps, is rising house walls and light wells, is penetrating ventilation tubes and is coming into other rooms by this.

The more little the room is in which the smokers are smoking - the more pollutants are breathed and are admitted into the blood circulation. The more persons are smoking in a household - the higher is the charge of pollutants.

[The minutest room with the highest charge of pollutants is smoking in a car].

The smell and the pollutants are setting down on the walls, on the floors, in the curtains, in the clothes and so on. When this happened it's impossible to recover a healthy atmosphere. Most of the smoking rooms confirm this and there is no doubt - ventilations against pollutants have no effect.

When smokers are smoking on a balcony there should not be a children's room in the next floor over the balcony because the smoker's smoke is driving into the children's room by the window.

Tobacco smoke is a flat poison, also when tobacco smoke is hardly listed in the lists of the flat poisons. One single cigarette can charge 19,000 m3 of air, this is a room that is like 19 comfortable one family houses.
(Passivrauch: Eigenschaften und Folgen; http://www.proaere.ch/d/data/data_36.pdf)

The smoke of one single cigarette in a room of 100 m3 is irritating already the eyes, the nose, and the throat.

Smokers are intoxicating non-smokers until now absolutely legally.
(Passivrauch: Eigenschaften und Folgen; http://www.proaere.ch/d/data/data_36.pdf)

According to World Health Organization the reduction of smoking is one of the most effective measures to evade diseases.

75% of the population of Switzerland are non-smokers - they should not be forced to breath the smoke of the others.

33% of the adults smokes: Every third adult of Switzerland is smoking.

25% of all 15 year old youths in Germany is smoking.

In Germany about 400 non-smokers are dying of lung cancer because of second hand smoke / passive smoke every year.
(http://www.bund.net/lab/reddot2/pdf/pos_innenraum.pdf; http://www.who-nichtrauchertag.de/html/wnrt01_nichtraucherschutz.html)

According to conservative calculations [in Germany] "are dying in round terms 3,300 non-smokers because of different illnesses which are provoked by passive smoking", and 2,293 of the victims are women, among others because women non-smokers have to suffer more of men smokers.
(Schutz vor Passivrauchen am Arbeitsplatz: http://www.lfas.bayern.de/technischer_as/arbeitsstaetten_plaetze/arbeitsstaetten/nichtraucher/nichtrauch.htm)

Table: Mortality of passive smoking in Germany
Cause of death
women men all
Lung cancer
212 51 263
Coronary heart disease (KHK) 1423 725 2148
Stroke 585 189 774
chronic obstructive lung diseases (COPD) 48 8 56
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) 25 35 60
All 2293 1008 3301

Passivrauchbedingte Mortalität in Deutschland nach Todesursache
Bearbeitung: Institut für Epidemiologie und Sozialmedizin
der Universität Münster, Hygiene-Institut der Universität Heidelberg, 2005

(Schutz vor Passivrauchen am Arbeitsplatz: http://www.lfas.bayern.de/technischer_as/arbeitsstaetten_plaetze/arbeitsstaetten/nichtraucher/nichtrauch.htm)

Worse air pollution: Smoke of cigarette of the naked cigarette which is not "smoked"

The smoke of a cigarette, which is burning down on the top without being smoked, is the worst smoke, so, this is the second hand smoke resp. side stream smoke:

-- the tobacco is burnt only incompletely
-- many toxic substances are coming into the air.
(Passivrauch: Eigenschaften und Folgen; http://www.proaere.ch/d/data/data_36.pdf)

Cigarette propaganda is
                            propaganda for bodily injury!
Cigarette propaganda - e.g., for Marlboro - is propaganda for bodily injury!

Tobacco industry knows this since the 1960s but is doing nothing:

<Second hand smoke (side stream smoke) which has to be breathed by the non-smokers is four time as toxic as the main stream smoke which is breathed by the smoker, because second hand smoke is not burnt completely. Also this fact was known by the industry by surveys from the 1960s, but they suppressed the results.>
(Was Raucher süchtig macht: http://www.wahrheitssuche.org/zigaretten.html)

The toxic substances from second hand smoke / side stream smoke come into the air unfiltered. By this concentration of toxic substances in the second hand smoke / side stream smoke is partly massively higher than in the breathed smoke which is exhaled by the smoker.

<About three quarters of a cigarette is burning within the second hand smoke by glimming. The concentration of the toxic substances in the second hand smoke of a cigarette are 30 to 100 fold higher than in the main stream smoke. The components of the passive smoke stay in the air of a room for a long time. 2 hours after the smoke the air of the room contains 50% of the concentration of the nitric oxides.>
(Schutz vor Passivrauchen am Arbeitsplatz: http://www.lfas.bayern.de/technischer_as/arbeitsstaetten_plaetze/arbeitsstaetten/nichtraucher/nichtrauch.htm)

The smoke which is produced at the top of the cigarette by burning the cigarette down has a lower temperature and another acidity than the smoke that the smoking person is sucking by the filter into the lung.

The difference of temperature is provoked by the different temperatures of burning in the blazing zone.


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3. Measurements

Methods of measurement of the pollution of the smoked air / passive smoke: Cotinine

The charge by second hand smoke / passive smoke can be measured precisely measuring cotinine - this is a degradation product of nicotine.
(Passivrauch: Eigenschaften und Folgen; http://www.proaere.ch/d/data/data_36.pdf)

Nicotine and it's metabolic product cotitine can be proved in blood serum and in urine and can be measured analytically, add to this nicotine can also be measured in the hair. Half-life period of nicotine is 0.5 to 2 hours, half-life period of cotitine is 19 to 40 hours. To prove passive smoking the measurement of nicotine in the scalp hair is the most practical test.

Measurements at the place of work: The right of a smoke-free place of work is partially not implemented

-- situation in Germany: <In enterprises lead by smokers there is missing an effective non-smoker's protection twice as much than in enterprises lead by non-smoking managers.>
(Nichtraucherschutz ist Gesundheitsschutz (2001): http://www.who-nichtrauchertag.de/html/wnrt01_nichtraucherschutz.html)

-- the right of a smoke-free place of work is not implemented until now (2006) in Switzerland

-- in smoky offices or restaurants, where smoking is permitted, the value for carbon monoxide is exceeded up to five times the limit. One has to consider that the charge of a non-smoking person during one hour in a heavily smoked room corresponds to the consumption of 4 to 6 cigarettes.

-- the cancer-causing effect of second hand smoke / passive smoke comes after radon on second place, even before asbestos, benzene, and diesel soot, etc.

-- In 2001, Prof. Dr. Nikolaus Konietzko, Medical Director of the Ruhr Clinic ["Ruhrlandklinik"] of Essen, and member of the curatorium of the German Lung Foundation ["Deutsche Lungenstiftung"] called for the acknowledgment of passive smoking as a vocational disease.
(Nichtraucherschutz ist Gesundheitsschutz (2001): http://www.who-nichtrauchertag.de/html/wnrt01_nichtraucherschutz.html)


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4. Mode of action of the smoker's smoke / of passive smoking all in all

Cigarette with second
                            hand smoke (side stream smoke): burning at
                            600-900°C with high content of pollutants
Cigarette with second hand smoke (side stream smoke): burning at 600-900°C with high content of pollutants

<In the daze of 600 to 900 degrees of a cigarette [above all on the top of the cigarette] many basically harmless substances are combining to new substances - as in a chemical reactor - and these new substances can be addictive and cancer-causing. Scientists have found 3,044 chemical substances in a cigarette. From these again were built up to 4,800 chemical substances which are floating in the cigarette fume.>
(Von Vanillin bis Harnstoff:

Different toxic substances in the tobacco smoke provoke blood coagulation and by this the coronary vessels and the brain vessels are blocked.
(Passivrauch: Eigenschaften und Folgen; http://www.proaere.ch/d/data/data_36.pdf)

[Smoker's smoke charges the human beings according to the size of the room and open-air according to the position and the wind, if one is sitting in the trail of smoke of the cigarette or not].

Raucher sind Täter und
                            Opfer zugleich, bei enormer

Smokers are culprits and victims in one, with enormous bodily injury. When will pay the culprits, the cigarette producers, for hiding 40 years the results about the bodily injury? Where are the judges? - Also the judges are smoking...

Bitumen in tobacco smoke paralyzes the function of the cilia in the airways also of non-smokers. The cilia cannot expel the breathed toxic substances any more. The toxic particles stay in the airways and provoke inflammations of mucosae in the airways, in the lung, and in the nose.
( nrbxilvf7swkc+Rauchen++Tabakrauch+Schadstoffe+in+der+Luft&hl=de&gl=ch&ct=clnk&cd=5

Tobacco industry tries to conceal the results of the working effects of second hand smoke / passive smoke - by payed surveys, or in connection with marketing boards.
(Passivrauch: Eigenschaften und Folgen; http://www.proaere.ch/d/data/data_36.pdf)

Tobacco industry hid for decades the own surveys about second hand smoke / passive smoke. Per day one human being dies because of second hand smoke / passive smoke in Switzerland.


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5. Each toxic element in the second hand smoke / in the smoke of cigarettes / in the passive smoke

[These indications have to be considered not only for human beings - but also for the domestic animals in the flat of smokers].

Second hand smoke / passive smoke contains cancer-causing, irritating or allergenic particles.

Above all there are toxic substances
-- of PAK
-- nitrosamines
-- aromatic amines
-- some heterocyclical compounds (e.g., azaarenes).

-- carbon monoxide (also from stoves, from chimneys, and from ovens).

Carbon monoxide is a respiratory poison, is three fold contained in the second hand smoke / passive smoke as in the smoke which is breathed and exhaled by the smoker; carbon monoxide replaces the vital oxygen.
(Passivrauch: Eigenschaften und Folgen; http://www.proaere.ch/d/data/data_36.pdf)

Carbon monoxide is coming by the airways and by the lungs into the blood circulation. There it occupies the red blood cells 200 fold easier than oxygen. The whole body will suffer a lack of oxygen, with a loss of power as consequence.

<Certain cells are reproducing themselves to make room for more oxygen. This leads to a swelling of blood vessels, because at the same time they adopt more cholesterol, and this again leads to arteriosclerosis. At the same time the smoker has a higher blood pressure, and a block of vessels is possible. Important organs are not supplied with blood any more. When vasoconstriction affects the coronary arteries - which supplies the cardiac muscle - then the person is in danger of a heart attack. When the blood supply of the brain is affected, the person is in danger of a apoplexy. When there is a constriction in the legs there are heavy pains during marching, this is the so called "smoker's leg".>

<Limit value for the respiratory poison of carbon monoxide is exceeded in smoked rooms (offices or restaurants) up to the 5 fold.>

A day without smoker's smoke / without passive smoke or with smokers without smoke has the effect that the oxygen values in the blood are normalizing again.

-- nitric oxides: irritant gas (also from stoves, chimneys, or ovens)

-- ammoniac: irritant gas

-- free radicals: are accelerating the aging process, are destroying vital substances in the body

-- nicotine: nervous system  toxin
(Passivrauch: Eigenschaften und Folgen; http://www.proaere.ch/d/data/data_36.pdf)

Three drops of nicotine are lethal.

Within 7 seconds breathed nicotine in cigarettes reaches the brain by lungs and blood circulation. This psycho active substance has an animating and relaxing effect. Consumption makes addicted, and consumption has to be enhanced every time for the wanted effect. Two days without second hand smoke / passive smoke or two days without smoke have the effect that the nicotine is ejected of the body.

-- condensate

-- fugitive amines

Cancer-causing substances in second hand smoke / passive smoke

<40 to 50 compounds in smoker's smoke are classified as cancer-causing.>

-- nitrosamines: cancer-causing, is 400 fold stronger concentrated in second hand smoke / passive smoke than in the smoke which is breathed and then exhaled by the smoker

-- fine dust in second hand smoke / passive smoke: Fine dust is penetrating the lungs deeply and is high-grade toxic. Amon others the fine dust particles are taking radio active gases of the radon family and heavy metals into the lungs.
(Passivrauch: Eigenschaften und Folgen; http://www.proaere.ch/d/data/data_36.pdf)

Fine dust provokes asthma, lung cancer and other airway diseases. Referring to fine dust second hand smoke / passive smoke is worse than Diesel exhausts, even when the engine is working in a closed room. Three cigarettes produce more fine dust than half an hour Diesel exhausts of a modern turbo Diesel car.

-- polonium 210: ratio active heavy metal, cancer-causing

-- dioxins: cancer-causing, damaging the genotype and damaging embryos

-- dry condensate bitumen: cancer-causing
(Passivrauch: Eigenschaften und Folgen; http://www.proaere.ch/d/data/data_36.pdf)

Bitumen is a collection of gluey chemical substances. Breathed bitumen fumes are deposing on the airways and in the lungs. The cilia stick together. Germs are not hindered by the stuck cilia any more and can find access to the windpipe and to the lungs without hindrance.

<The bitumen particles in the airways can provoke a change of the internal walls at the bifurcations of the little airways (bronchia). The cell division is not "controlled" any more. By this there can grow malignant cancer tissue. The surface  which is attacked can be estimated when one knows  that the flat lung tissue of a human being is as  big as a tennis court. Cancer cells can reach the blood and can build metastasis - or can attack other organs.>

[orig. German:
<Durch die in die Atemwege gelangten Teerpartikel können sich bei den Verzweigungen der kleinen Luftwege (Bronchien) die Innenwände verändern. Die Zellteilung wird nicht mehr «kontrolliert». So kann bösartiges Krebsgewebe entstehen. Wie gross die Angriffsfläche ist, wird durch den Vergleich sichtbar, dass das ausgebreitete Lungengewebe eines Menschen die Grösse eines Tennisfeldes hat. Krebszellen können ins Blut gelangen und Metastasen bilden oder andere Organe angreifen.>]

-- acrolein: cancer-causing

-- formaldehyde: cancer-causing; is 50 times more concentrated in the second hand smoke / passive smoke than in the smoke which is breathed and exhaled by the smoking person

-- aniline: cancer-causing

-- cadmium: cancer-causing, is 7 times more concentrated in the second hand smoke / passive smoke than in the smoke which is breathed and exhaled by the smoking person
(Passivrauch: Eigenschaften und Folgen; http://www.proaere.ch/d/data/data_36.pdf)

-- plutonium

Comparison main stream smoke - second hand smoke / side stream smoke

Second hand smoke (side stream smoke) which damages passive smokers very hard, contains essentially more PAK, azaarenes and amines than the main stream smoke. Surveys gave the results that the content of these compounds is 10 times as high.

Table about the difference of the content of pollutants of some  important known pollutants in the main stream smoke compared with the second hand smoke / side stream smoke:

Table: pollutants in main stream smoke and second hand smoke / side stream smoke
main stream smoke
(microgram per cigarette)
second hand smoke / side stream smoke
(factor of surplus charge
compared with the main stream smoke)
(microgram per cigarette)
Carbon dioxide
30,000 - 40,000
8 - 11 times more
240,000 - 440,000
Carbon monoxide
10,000 - 23,000
3 - 5 times more 30,000 - 115,000
1,000 - 2,500
3 times more 3,000 - 7,500
Hydrogen cyanide
400 - 500
factor 0,1 - 0,3
40 - 150
Phenol (cancer-causing)
60 - 140
2 - 3 times more 120 - 420
Formaldehyde (cancer-causing)
70 - 100
0,1 - 50 times more 7 - 5,000
Benzene (cancer-causing)
12 - 48
5 - 10 times more 60 - 480
Dust particles (containing PAK, cancer-causing)
15,000 - 40,000
2 times more 30,000 - 80,000


By this tobacco smoke is pollutant of the interior of houses no. 1. These pollutants can also be found in other parts:

-- formaldehyde: also in chipboards
-- PAK: also in glue of parquet floors
-- benzene: on roads with much traffic
-- toluol: in the air of the interior of houses.

<The effect of some other pollutants is enforced by tobacco smoke. Certain pollutants like asbestos or radon have an "over additive" reaction - this means: the effect of the compound is stronger than the sum of the several singular effects.>


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6. The additives in the tobacco also are in the second hand smoke / in the passive smoke

Zigaretten enthalten nicht nur

Cigarettes not only contain tobacco, but a lot of additives which become highly toxic when the cigarette is burnt. Then these toxic substances also are in the smoke...

Additives are in the tobacco, in the cigarette paper, and in the cigarette filters.
(Welt, 17.5.2005: http://www.welt.de/data/2005/05/17/719362.html)

The additives become highly toxic by burning them
<According to indications of the Consumer Protection Board ["Verbraucherschutzministerium"] scientists admit that substances dangerous to health can be produced when the additives are burnt during smoking.>
(Zusatzstoffe in Zigaretten:

<With the high temperature in the blaze zone of 600 to 900 degrees the additives convert into cancer-causing substances.>
(Zusatzstoffe in Zigaretten verbieten?

The additives in the tobacco also are in the second hand smoke / passive smoke, with highly harmful effects.
(Passivrauch: Eigenschaften und Folgen; http://www.proaere.ch/d/data/data_36.pdf)

The aim: more cancer - and there should be smoked even more

<Tobacco industry is "fixing" the young smokers with seducing aromas of the childhood, and then the dependence of the common habit smoker is risen by chemical elements, and by this the hunger of cigarettes is risen.>
(Zusatzstoffe bekannt machen: http://www.manfred-zoellmer.de/service/news.php?id=194)

<Burning cigarettes produce cancer-causing substances in the blaze zone, but above all they provoke more absorption of nicotine, because the smoke is breathed deeper and longer" [because the body is relaxed by nicotine].
(Von Vanillin bis Harnstoff: http://www.stern.de/wissenschaft/gesund_leben/aktuell/:Zigaretten-Zusatzstoffe-Glimmst%E4ngel-Lupe/540490.html)

All in all there are 600 additives [year 2005], "a highly developed chemistry cocktail", in application formulas perfectly developed for the drug nicotine. The aim of a cigarette is to provoke the demand of more cigarettes. The key of this pattern is nicotine which has an addicting effect and is the machine which provokes the smoker to smoke on and on - despite of all dangers.>

The additives are up to 10% of the weight of a cigarette.
(Von Vanillin bis Harnstoff: http://www.stern.de/wissenschaft/gesund_leben/aktuell/:Zigaretten-Zusatzstoffe-Glimmst%E4ngel-Lupe/540490.html)

Only in 1994 the murder industry of the cigarette producers were forced by law in Federal State of Minnesota to hand out all suppressed scientific research results, all secret strategy papers and marketing plans (with children as especially important target group). (http://www.library.ucsf/.edu/tobacco)
(Was Raucher süchtig macht: http://www.wahrheitssuche.org/zigaretten.html)

The "additives" in detail

The lists at the Federal Board for Nutrition, Agriculture and Protection of the Consumer (February 2006):

The cigarette producers have any liberty to charge the cigarettes with additives. The aromatic compounds, fruits, juices, oils, plant extracts, resins, powders, slimes, dusts of metal oxides and many other additives have no legal definition at all.

Additives for cigarettes ("substances besides tobacco") are, e.g.,
-- 1,2 propylene glycol (often)
-- compounds of aromas (often)
-- cellulose fibers (often)
-- fruits
-- syrups
-- sugar, invert sugar (often), different sugar substances (often)

-- urea
-- ammoniac
-- menthol
-- ethanol
-- glycerine (often)
-- guar gum (often)
-- carob gum (often)
-- cacao (often), cacao products (often) (because the elements of cacao make happy, so, also cigarettes should make people happy; In: www.kartoffel-geschichte.de: chapter: Gen Europa)

-- licorice extract (often)
-- plum extract (often), plum juice (often)
-- nitrogen (often)
-- water (often)
-- sorbitol (often)

<The aim of the additives is to reduce the burning, to cover the strong smell of tobacco, to make easier the absorption of nicotine etc.>

Additives for cigarettes are, e.g.,
-- licorice
-- carob gum
-- cacao
-- menthol
-- glycerine
-- paraffins
(Zusatzstoffe in Zigaretten: http://www.stiftung-warentest.de/online/gesundheit_kosmetik/special/1132287/1132287/1262666.html)

-- slimes

-- spices
-- coffee
-- oils
-- waxes
-- fats
-- amino acids
-- gum of plants
-- amylum
-- powders
(Zusatzstoffe in Zigaretten verbieten? http://forum.tagesspiegel.de/viewtopic.php?p=6398&sid=b19dde0a0beb0ae2f6d8e1e0f6a37f4b)

-- rum
-- licorice
-- wine acid
-- lactic acid
-- corn syrup

-- cinnamon alcohol
(N24: Zusatzstoffe in Zigaretten: http://www.n24.de/politik/hintergrund/?n2005051814351600002)

-- arsenic
(Focus: http://focus.msn.de/hps/fol/newsausgabe/newsausgabe.htm?id=21778)

-- soda
(Von Vanillin bis Harnstoff: http://www.stern.de/wissenschaft/gesund_leben/aktuell/:Zigaretten-Zusatzstoffe-Glimmst%E4ngel-Lupe/540490.html)

-- resins
-- metal oxide powders

-- sodium benzoate
(Zusatzstoffe in Zigaretten: http://onkeltank.de/weblog/2005/05/19/zusatzstoffe-in-zigaretten/)

Logo of the Federal Board of Nutrition,
                  Agriculture and Protection of Consumers of Germany
                  ("Bundesministerium für Verbraucherschutz")
Additives according to the tables of the Federal Board for Alimentation, Agriculture and Protection of Consumer ["Bundesministerium für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz"] (February 2006):

-- 1,2- propylene glycol
-- azote
-- benzyl alcohol
-- cacao products
-- calcium carbonate
-- caramel
-- carob gum, extract of carob gum
-- citric acid
-- glucose
-- guar gum
-- invert sugar
-- isopentane
-- L menthol
-- lactic acid
-- licorice, extract of licorice, licorice root, licorice juice
-- lulose
-- malic acid
-- plum juice, plum extract
-- potassium sorbate
-- sodium benzoate
-- sodium carboxymethylcellulose
-- sugar substances
-- sugar, brown
-- sugar colour
(list of the additives in cigarettes (Germ.: Liste der Zusatzstoffe in Zigaretten), p.53-100: http://www.attac.de/moenchengladbach/Zusatzstoffe%20Zigaretten%20l-z.pdf)

-- ammonium hydrogen phosphate
-- aromas, natural and artificial
-- concentrate of fig juice, extract of fig juice
-- fruits: fresh fruits, dried fruits, fruit extracts
-- glyoxal
-- hydroxybenzoat
-- cacao butter
-- cacao powder
-- methyl cellulose
-- raisin extract, raisin juice
-- sorbic acid
-- citric acid
(list of the additives in tobacco products of 2004: cigarettes A-K:

-- maple sugar
-- fig juice concentrate
-- glucose syrup
-- chocolate
(list of the additives in tobacco products of 2004: cigarettes  L-Z:

-- malic acid
-- fire agent
-- rapid fire agent
-- humid agent
-- glyceryl triacetate
-- gum arabic
-- honey
-- hydroxybenzoat
-- preservatives
-- molasses
-- sodium citrate
-- water
(list of the additives in tobacco products 2004: fine-cut:

-- maple extract
-- apple juice, apple concentrate, apple extract
-- benzoic acid
-- dextrin
-- potassium citrate
-- licorice powder
-- rohrenkassien extract
-- tamarind extract
-- sugars, diverse

(list of the additives in tobacco products 2004: pipe tobacco A-H (often over 15 additives):

-- 4-(2,6,6 trimethyl cyclohex-1-enyl)but-2-en-4-on
-- 4-(p-hydroxyphenyl)2-butanone
-- 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone
-- 5-hydroxyde can acid lacton
-- 6-methylcumarine
-- acetoine
-- apricot juice, apricot extract
-- styrax extract
-- benzoic acid benzyl ester
-- benzyl alcohol
-- benzaldehyd
-- fenugreek extract
-- butyric acid
-- delta octanolacton
-- acetic acid
-- eugenol
-- gamma heptalacton
-- gamma octanolacton
-- gamma undecalacton
-- glyceryl triacetate
-- guaiac gum extract
-- heliotropin
-- isoamyloctanoat
-- carob kernels extract
-- coffee, coffee extract
-- cacao powder
-- cassia oil, cassia bark extract
-- cilantro oil
-- methyl cyclopentenolon
-- sodium chloride
-- nonano-1,4-lacton
-- orange oils, orange extracts
-- balsam of Peru oil
-- phenylethylacetat
-- propion acid methyl ester
-- sherry
-- alcoholics
-- vanilla extract
-- wine
-- cinnamon oils, cinnamon extracts
(list of the additives in tobacco products 2004: pipe tobacco I-Li (often over 15 additives):

-- 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4-pyranon
-- potassium benzoate
-- dissolvent
-- malt extract
-- red vine
-- spirituous beverages
(list of additives in tobacco products 2004: pipe tobacco Lo-Z (often over 15 additives):

-- apple pomace
-- syrup
-- sorbic acid
(list of the additives in tobacco products 2004: water pipe tobacco: http://www.bmelv.de/cln_044/nn_754188/SharedDocs/downloads/02-Verbraucherschutz/

-- gum base
-- corn syrup
(list of additives in tobacco products 2004: chewing tobacco: http://www.bmelv.de/cln_044/nn_754188/SharedDocs/downloads/02-Verbraucherschutz/

-- pineapple extract
-- anise alcohol
-- ammoniumhydrogenphosphate
-- benzaldehyd
-- pear ether
-- Brazil Feinst
-- calcium hydroxide
-- cineole
-- iron-III-sulphate
-- staghorn salt
-- hydroxybenzoen acid
-- Manila Fruchtig
-- liquid paraffin
-- peppermint oil
-- Polar Prise
-- tobacco oil
-- tannin
-- white oil
(list of additives in tobacco products 2004: snuff: http://www.bmelv.de/cln_044/nn_754188/SharedDocs/downloads/02-Verbraucherschutz/

-- 2,3-butanedione
-- acetoine
-- aluminium oxide
-- aluminium silicate
-- anise alcohol
-- formic acid
-- aromas, natural and artificial
-- Astragalus Gummifer
-- binding material
-- cognac
-- diatomite
-- ethylenvinylacetat co-polymer
-- ethylhydroxyethyl-cellulose
-- ethyl cellulose
-- humic acid
-- hydroxyethyl cellulose
-- isopropanol
-- potassium citrate
-- potassium nitrate
-- potassium sorbate
-- kieselgur
-- preservative
-- glue
-- magnesium acetate 4 hydrate
-- magnesium formate
-- magnesium oxide
-- methyl cellulose
-- myrrh extract, myrrh oils
-- sodium carboxymethyl cellulose
-- sodium glycolat
-- palmitic acid
-- polyvinyl acetate / vinyl alcohol copolymer
-- silica
-- cooking oils
-- tobacco: homogenized band tobacco
-- zamarind gum
-- titan dioxide
-- triethylen glycol
-- thinner
-- vine acid
-- whiting agent
-- sugar: corn syrup with much fructose
(list of the additives in tobacco products 2004: cigars and cigarillos A-D:

-- Diatomaceus earth
-- colorant
-- tobacco leaf
-- vine acid
(list of the additives in tobacco products 2004: cigars and cigarillos E-N:

The intention of the additives can be different:
-- the tobacco should be fresh longer
-- the body shall adapt nicotine better (e.g., ammoniac)
-- throat irritation shall be suppressed during smoking (e.g. menthol)
-- strong tobacco smell shall be suppressed and children and youths shall be seduced to smoke by spices, sweet substances like cloves, vanillin, sugar, honey.
(additives in cigarettes: http://www.stiftung-warentest.de/online/gesundheit_kosmetik/special/1132287/1132287/1262666.html)

-- cigarette smoke shall be more bright (by magnesium oxide).
(Cacao, licorice & Co. [Germ.: Kakao, Lakritze & Co.]: http://www.cardiologe.de/index_extern.html?/patient/info/kurz_fuendig/rauchen_kakao.html)

<The producers of cigarettes (drug barons!) are adding dangerous poisoning substances into the inedible cocktail to addict the consumer as soon as possible.>

[orig. German:
<Die Zigarettenhersteller (Drogenbarone!) mischen noch zusätzlich Giftstoffe in den ungeniessbaren Cocktail um die Konsumenten frühzeitig süchtig zu machen.>]
The survey of university hospital Charité of Berlin and of university hospital of Bern explored 32 brands of cigarettes of Swiss market from 2001 and 2003. The result were 48 additives, mostly aromas like menthol. Some brands of cigarettes also contained substances which were not allowed.

By the additives, cigarette industry is making the cigarette consumer furthermore addictive from consumption of cigarettes. <Hundreds of additives are added to facilitate the smokers the adaption of nicotine.>

<The formula of addiction to cigarettes is: Give nicotine and manipulate the pH-value to a basic level, add some additives and many flavorings, and by this it will also be possible for children to take deep drags - with the consequence of a deep penetration of all pollutants of the cigarette smoke into the deeper airways.>

Additive menthol: shall moderate the tickle of the throat

<By it's cooling and pain moderating effect the lungs can tolerate the biting smoke better.>

Nowadays there is a difference between "menthol cigarettes" and "normal" cigarettes without menthol.

<According to information of the Cancer Research Center menthol has become a standard also in non-menthol cigarettes."
(Von Vanillin bis Harnstoff: http://www.stern.de/wissenschaft/gesund_leben/aktuell/:Zigaretten-Zusatzstoffe-Glimmst%E4ngel-Lupe/540490.html)

<Documents of tobacco industry - as the following - seem to confirm: "Menthol in cigarettes is a local pain killer and reduces the pain experience in the mouth." (Brown & Williamson, 1972).>
(Süsswaren in Zigaretten: http://www.daserste.de/wwiewissen/thema_dyn~id,t1zs23o9cfbsjuc0~cm.asp)

<[Menthol] gives the possibility for deeper breathing of the smoke for children already.>
(N24: Zusatzstoffe in Zigaretten: http://www.n24.de/politik/hintergrund/?n2005051814351600002)

<Menthol which is a composite of most classes of cigarettes (often under the limit of awareness) brings a special risk potential, because by it's calming down effect it seduces the smoker to deeper and stronger drags. This leads to a significant higher risk of a lung cancer disease.>

[orig. German:
<Das in den meisten Zigarettenmarken enthaltene Menthol (oft unterhalb der Wahrnehmungsschwelle) birgt ein besonderes Gefahrenpotenzial, da es durch seine beruhigende Wirkung den Raucher zu tieferen und kräftigeren Lungenzügen verleitet. Das führt zu einer deutlichen Erhöhung der Gefahr einer Lungenkrebserkrankung.>]

Additive sugar and the criminal caramelization

Sugar during burning sets free the cancer-causing acrolein.
(Verbot aller Zusatzstoffe in Zigaretten: http://openpr.de/news/48930.html)

<For covering the strong tobacco smell the producers add sugar in big quantities. This sugar - together with ammoniac - will caramelize and is producing a soft smell by this. All these chemical changes lead to a breath of more quantities of smoke and by this higher nicotine quantities are consumed, but also the risk of health is higher by the forced absorption of cancer-causing substances and of substances changing the blood picture. By  this burning sugar in the cigarette produces a substantial quantity of cancer-causing aldehyde. By this manipulation a dangerous product [the cigarette] is turned into a more dangerous one.>

[orig. German:
<Um den strengen Tabakgeschmack zu überdecken, setzen die Hersteller ausserdem in grossem Umfang Zucker ein, der zusammen mit Ammoniak karamellisiert wird und dadurch einen weichen Geschmack erzeugt. Alle diese chemischen Veränderungen führen zur Inhalation grösserer Rauchmengen und damit höherer Nikotinmengen, aber auch zu einer erhöhten Gesundheitsgefährdung durch die verstärkte Aufnahme krebserregender und das Blutbild verändernder Substanzen. So entsteht bei der Verbrennung von Zucker in der Zigarette eine erhebliche Menge krebserzeugender Aldehyde. Ein bereits gefährliches Produkt wird durch diese Manipulationen noch gefährlicher gemacht.>]

<Different kinds of sugar - in connection with ammoniac - are covering the strong tobacco smell, and by this smoking becomes more comfortable. By burning sugar there are aldehydes produced. Some aldehydes are cancer-causing and add to this destroy the mucosa which permits to enter more harmful substances.>

[orig. German:
<Verschiedene Zucker überdecken in Verbindung mit Ammoniak den strengen Tabakgeschmack, so dass das Rauchen angenehmer wird. Bei der Verbrennung der Zucker entstehen zudem Aldehyde. Einige Aldehyde sind Krebs erregend und zerstören zudem die Schleimhaut, durch die dann weitere schädliche Stoffe gelangen können.>]
(N24: Zusatzstoffe in Zigaretten: http://www.n24.de/politik/hintergrund/?n2005051814351600002)

Additive cacao: for making the biting tobacco smoke more tolerable
(Süsswaren in Zigaretten: http://www.daserste.de/wwiewissen/thema_dyn~id,t1zs23o9cfbsjuc0~cm.asp)

Additive licorice: for making the biting tobacco smoke more tolerable
(Süsswaren in Zigaretten: http://www.daserste.de/wwiewissen/thema_dyn~id,t1zs23o9cfbsjuc0~cm.asp)

Additive honey: for making the biting tobacco smoke more tolerable
(Süsswaren in Zigaretten: http://www.daserste.de/wwiewissen/thema_dyn~id,t1zs23o9cfbsjuc0~cm.asp)

Additive cinnamon alcohol: is converting itself during burning  into cancer-causing substances
(N24: Zusatzstoffe in Zigaretten: http://www.n24.de/politik/hintergrund/?n2005051814351600002)

Additive waxes: are converting themselves during burning  into cancer-causing substances
(N24: Zusatzstoffe in Zigaretten: http://www.n24.de/politik/hintergrund/?n2005051814351600002)

Additive fats: are converting themselves during burning  into cancer-causing substances
(N24: Zusatzstoffe in Zigaretten: http://www.n24.de/politik/hintergrund/?n2005051814351600002)

Additive aroma oils (e.g., vanillin): for making the biting tobacco smoke more tolerable
But burning oils can convert themselves into cancer-causing substances.
(Süsswaren in Zigaretten: http://www.daserste.de/wwiewissen/thema_dyn~id,t1zs23o9cfbsjuc0~cm.asp)

Additives ammonium compounds: ammoniac, soda, urea

Ammoniac for manipulation of the pH-value

[The pH-value is important for the quantity of nicotine which can be absorbed by a body].

Cigarette enterprises artificially rise the content of ammoniac of the tobacco until up to the 10 fold. By this the pH-value of the cigarette is risen, [and by this the smoker will not have the feeling to get ill during smoking].
(Was Raucher süchtig macht: http://www.wahrheitssuche.org/zigaretten.html)

<A body can absorb more nicotine when the pH-value stays high, and the industry artificially tries to heighten the pH-value [of the smoker's body]."

[orig. German:
<Bewusst versucht die Industrie auch den für die Bioverfügbarkeit des Nikotins massgeblichen pH-Wert des Tabaks zu erhöhen.>
(Nikotinverstärker in Zigaretten: http://www.naturkost.de/meldungen/2003/031211g1.htm)

Ammoniac provokes a nicotine "flash"
<[Ammoniac] provokes that more addictive drugs than normally can pass into the blood circulation. Ammoniac makes nicotine more fat-soluble.By this nicotine can pass better by the tissue layers of the body. Many experts criticize  that smokers become easier addictive by this.>

[orig. German:
<[Ammoniak] sorgt dafür, dass mehr Suchtgift als üblich noch schneller in den Blutkreislauf gelangt. Ammoniak macht das Nikotin fettlöslicher. Es kann dadurch besser durch die Gewebeschichten im Körper gleiten. Viele Experten kritisieren, dass Raucher deswegen leichter abhängig werden.>]
(N24: Zusatzstoffe in Zigaretten: http://www.n24.de/politik/hintergrund/?n2005051814351600002)

Ammonium salts and urea promote the generation of free nicotine
(BAG: http://www.edi.admin.ch/dokumentation/00613/00614/index.html?print_style=yes&lang=de&msg-id=3094&PHPSESSID=9859495628

<[The ammonium compounds] have an influence on the content of nicotine and on the behaviour of nicotine in the body. The common indication of quantity of nicotine which is indicated today on all boxes of cigarettes is only partly an indication about the danger of a cigarette. Ammoniac and the other elements have the effect that also the other hidden nicotine - which is hidden in chemical compounds - can be absorbed by the body. This chemical bounded nicotine is not measured by the measurement standards and is not indicated in the content of nicotine. And ammoniac fastens the absorption of nicotine in the lung and fastens the flooding of the brain - by this the drug of nicotine has a faster and longer effect.>

[orig. German:
<[Die Ammonium-Verbindungen] beeinflussen den Nikotingehalt und das Verhalten des Nikotins im Körper. Die gängige Angabe der Nikotinmenge, die sich heutzutage auf allen Zigarettenpäckchen findet, sagt nur bedingt etwas über die Gefährlichkeit der Zigarette aus. Ammoniak und die anderen Stoffe bewirken, dass zusätzlich zum frei im Tabak vorliegenden Nikotin auch noch das in chemischen Komplexen gebundene, versteckte Nikotin frei und vom Körper aufgenommen werden kann. Dieses chemisch gebundene Nikotin wird von den Messstandards nicht erfasst und fliesst somit auch nicht in die Angabe des Nikotingehaltes mit ein. Und Ammoniak beschleunigt die Aufnahme des Nikotins in der Lunge und des Anflutens im Gehirn - die Droge Nikotin wirkt also schneller und länger.>

By this: A cigarette with a high content of nicotine without ammoniac is much less dangerous than a cigarette with low content of nicotine but with high content of ammoniac.

The cigarette industry always pretended to produce body friendly cigarettes:
"So, the German Center for Cancer Research ["Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum"] indicated in a critical report about the additives in tobacco products that the tobacco industry has developed always finer techniques since the 1950s to answer the always growing consciousness of harmful cigarettes. The quantity of free nicotine was reduced and the cigarette was "defused" at a first glance. But in reality there were added ammoniac, urea or soda, and by this the addictive potency of the cigarette was heightened. There was simply coming more and more nicotine into the body.>

[orig. German:
<So berichtet das Deutsche Krebsforschungszentrum in einer kritischen Bestandsaufnahme zu den Zusatzstoffen in Tabakerzeugnissen, dass die Tabakindustrie seit den 50er-Jahren immer ausgefeiltere Techniken entwickelt hat, um dem stetig wachsenden Bewusstsein der Schädlichkeit von Zigaretten vermeintlich Rechnung zu tragen. Zwar wurde die Menge des freien Nikotins in den Zigaretten gesenkt und die Zigaretten auf den ersten Blick "entschärft". In Wirklichkeit jedoch wurde durch Beimischung von Stoffen wie Ammoniak, Harnstoff oder Soda das Suchtpotenzial der Zigaretten erhöht. Im Körper kam einfach immer mehr Nikotin an.>]
(Von Vanillin bis Harnstoff: http://www.stern.de/wissenschaft/gesund_leben/aktuell/:Zigaretten-Zusatzstoffe-Glimmst%E4ngel-Lupe/540490.html)

Additive glycerine: is turning into the cancer-causing cilia vermin acrolein
Burning glycerine there is produced acrolein which is paralyzing the cilia of the bronchia.
(Was Raucher süchtig macht: http://www.wahrheitssuche.org/zigaretten.html)

resp. acrolein is cancer-causing.
(Verbot aller Zusatzstoffe in Zigaretten: http://openpr.de/news/48930.html)

Additive magnesium oxide: for bleaching of the smoker's smoke / smoke of cigarette
<Magnesium oxide is used to change the smoke optically: By this the smoke is brighter and by this is not so visible, and this is calming down the passive smokers.>

[orig. German:
<Magnesiumoxid wird verwendet, um den Rauch optisch zu verändern: Der Rauch ist heller und damit weniger stark sichtbar, was dann wieder die passiven Raucher beruhigt.>]
(Kakao, Lakritze & Co.: http://www.cardiologe.de/index_extern.html?/patient/info/kurz_fuendig/rauchen_kakao.html)


zum Inhalt    nach oben

7. Diseases by smoker's smoke / passive smoking

Certificate of a non-smoking

vergrössernCertificate of a non-smoking restaurant

Passive smoking is one of the most important causes of death.
(Passivrauch: Eigenschaften und Folgen; http://www.proaere.ch/d/data/data_36.pdf)

The best protection of humans from smoker's smoke / passive smoking is a 0 tolerance against smokers. Smokers have to smoke open-air.

-- affection of the breathing organs: lung diseases, heart diseases and bloodstream diseases, specifically: lung cancer, angina pectoris.
(Passivrauch: Eigenschaften und Folgen; http://www.proaere.ch/d/data/data_36.pdf)

-- pulmonary emphysema (water accumulation in the lung)

-- classes of cancer by smoking and by smoker's smoke / by passive smoking: lung cancer, larynx cancer, esophagus cancer, urinary bladder cancer

Röntgenfoto zeigt
x-ray photo showing lung cancer

-- damaging the arteries

-- affection of the airways by passive smoking: asthma, bronchitis, and inflammation of the deeper airways
(Passivrauch: Eigenschaften und Folgen; http://www.proaere.ch/d/data/data_36.pdf)

-- huskiness

-- dizziness

-- weakening the immune system

-- airways, asthma
Asthma inhalator,
                            eventually for life, also because of passive

Asthma inhalator, eventually for life, also because of passive smoking...

Mothers smoking during pregnancy or mothers exposed to smoker's smoke / passive smoking during pregnancy, are provoking a massively higher breath difficulty with her child. <The number of cigarettes hardly plays any role for the risk of asthma.>

<Smoking is not the only cause for asthma, but it damages the bronchia this heavily that a further charge - like an infect, or an allergy - can lead to asthma>, e.g., a combination with exhaust emissions of cars, production plants, pollen, or animal hairs.

<The risk for babies to breathe hard and to get an asthma is significantly higher when the mother is smoking or is exposed to smoke during pregnancy.>

Asthma is reinforced by passive smoking. By this asthmatics have more and stronger asthma attacks.

-- chronic headache

-- troubles with mucosae: mucosae of eyes, mouth, and nose

-- affection of the inner organs by agglutination of the blood: heart attack and stroke.

"The patient died of
                            the consequences of a heart attack" is
                            one of the most often phrases in clinical
                            histories, also because of passive

"The patient died of the consequences of a heart  attack" is one of the most often phrases in clinical histories, also because of passive smoking...

In many cases a short breath of smoker's smoke already can provoke longer lasting troubles.

Ventilation cannot enough remedy passive smoking. Tobacco smoke is this aggressive that it's not possible to provide the wanted quantity of fresh air.
(Passivrauch: Eigenschaften und Folgen; http://www.proaere.ch/d/data/data_36.pdf)

<New surveys prove that persons who had to work in strongly smoked rooms for 10 to 15 years - compared with persons who were not exposed to passive smoking - had a doubled risk of lung cancer.>

[orig. German:
<Neue Untersuchungen belegen, dass Personen, die 10-15 Jahre in stark verrauchten Räumen arbeiten - verglichen mit nicht bzw. kaum Passivrauch-exponierten Arbeitnehmern - ein doppelt so hohes Lungenkrebsrisiko haben.>
(Schutz vor Passivrauchen am Arbeitsplatz: http://www.lfas.bayern.de/technischer_as/arbeitsstaetten_plaetze/arbeitsstaetten/nichtraucher/nichtrauch.htm)

 A person working as a waiter in smoked localities has a greater risk to get the same illnesses as the smokers. A 39 years old waiter working for 20 years in smoked localities - who never smoked himself - has got a smoker's lung with destroyed airways and destroyed alveoles.

-- climacteric period is coming sooner: Smoking and passive smoking not only has the effect that the skin looks older than normally, but also the climacteric period is coming sooner than genetically provided.
from: Patricia Garfield: "Women's Bodies, Women's Dreams" 1988; Scherz Edition 1989, p.232

-- boosting osteoporosis and by this boosting the risk for bone fractures with men of more than 18 years, with women in the high age
(from: Rauchen erhöht Osteoporose-Risiko [Smoking rises osteoporosis risk]; ARD text, 7 June 2006, table 521)

Diseases on the fetus by smoker's smoke / passive smoke

When fathers- and mothers-to-be resp. when pregnant women are smoking, the foetus is also smoking. The foetus is suffering lack of oxygen because of the carbon monoxide and nicotine intoxication [because the red blood cells are compounding with carbon monoxide and cannot transport oxygen normally].

The same effect is provoked by everlasting passive smoking during pregnancy.

Additive coaching (Germ.:
                            Stützkurs) because of learning disorder,
                            among others also because of passive smoking
                            in the family...

Additive coaching (Germ.: Stützkurs) because of learning disorder, among others also because of passive smoking in the family...


-- sudden infant death syndrome is doubled
(Passivrauch: Eigenschaften und Folgen; http://www.proaere.ch/d/data/data_36.pdf)

-- sudden infant death syndrome is tripled

-- sudden infant death syndrome is doubled or tripled

-- the rate of deformity is higher

-- the corporal and mental development of the child is retarded and by this the base is laid for heavy diseases
(Passivrauch: Eigenschaften und Folgen; http://www.proaere.ch/d/data/data_36.pdf)

Premature birth or even
                            abortive birth: This play with life, also by
                            passive smoking...
Premature birth or even abortive birth: This play with life, also by passive smoking...

-- <children from women smokers (from 5 cigarettes per day on) are often retarded in their bodily and mental development. This is expressed also in difficulties with language disorder and reading disorder.>

[orig. German:
<Kinder von Raucherinnen (ab 5 Zigaretten / Tag) bleiben häufig in ihrem Wachstum und in der geistigen Entwicklung zurück, was sich in Sprach- und Lesestörungen äussert.>]

-- there are many more abortive births and premature births

-- the baby suffers reduced birth weight

up to 10% of the normal weight

-- the children suffer more attention deficit disorder and hyper activity

Illnesses of the child and the youth by smoker's smoke / passive smoke

50%: <Every second child in Germany is living in a smoker's household and is forced to passive smoking.>

<Already a cigarette on the table and cigarette end are a danger for the baby.>

The younger the child the more the child is much time at home and is exposed to smoker's smoke / passive smoke.

More than half of the children in Switzerland are exposed to tobacco smoke at home. In the 1990s 54% of the children between 6 and 14 years were affected with passive smoking by  the parents.

                            children absorb more pollutants than
Proportionally children absorb more pollutants than adults.

Children admit proportionally more pollutants than adults.

The reasons:
-- the immune system of children is not formed completely
-- the gastro-intestinal system of children is more permeable than the system of adults
--  the breathing volume and the surface of body of the children - in relation to the weight - are greater than with adults
-- the barrier function of the skin is not completed with children [the skin of children is thinner than the skin of adults].

By this, contact to environment by the lungs and by the skin are more intensive than with adults.

Medical conditions of children in Germany has become worse and has not enhanced, above all referring to allergies and asthma.

Children and youths have organs which are not completely developed. That's why smoker's smoke is damaging children and youths even more than adults.

By their active metabolism children and youths adapt more pollutants by air than adults. Children and youths react by their active metabolism more sensitively to pollutants by air than adults.
(Passivrauch: Eigenschaften und Folgen; http://www.proaere.ch/d/data/data_36.pdf)

-- when parents smoke beside a baby sudden infant death syndrome is doubled

-- the child is suffering more affection of bronchitides and inflammations of the upper airways

-- children of smoking parents have a reduced function of their lungs, and this will also be like this when they become adults

-- babies suffering often smoking parents are often suffering airways diseases, bronchitis, pneumonia, cough, sputum and ear diseases

-- chronic ear infection with babies

-- significantly higher rate of tympanum diseases

-- when father or mother daily smoke 20 to 30 cigarettes each in the flat, the child of 6 years can suffer for example chesty cough, pains of ears, often bronchitides, chronic inflammation of paranasal and chronic inflammation of tympanum.

Children in households with smoker's smoke resp. passive smoke directly suffer
-- irritation of conjunctiva
-- headaches
-- sore throat or
-- sickness.

Children in households with smoker's smoke resp. passive smoke are more vulnerable for
-- airway diseases
-- chronic middle air inflammation
-- bronchial asthma and
-- allergen skin diseases.

-- 50 to 70% higher risk for troubles with the lower airways or asthma.

Cancer diseases are favoured very much with children from smoker's parents.

-- youths from smoker's households suffer more often arteriosclerotic changes of vessels

-- more often leukemia with children and youths from smoker's households

<Smoking parents lay the base for a later cancer disease of their children. Passive smoking in young years is rising the risk for cancer, above all for nose cancer, according to a survey of the German Cancer Research Center.>

Furthermore children of smoking mothers are specially endangered to get cancer of urinary bladder or kidney cancer because of the tobacco degradation products to which they were exposed in the womb. According to the cognitions of scientists these higher risks develop independently from hereditary factors and from nicotine consumption.>

(from: ARD-Text, 16 October 2005, table 129)

Children of smokers often become smokers by habit

When the parents smoke, children and youths see smoking parents as something of "everyday", and this prepares the children and youths to become also victim of tobacco propaganda.
(Passivrauch: Eigenschaften und Folgen; http://www.proaere.ch/d/data/data_36.pdf)

57% of non-smokers of 13 to 19 years come from non-smoking families or from families where the parents have stopped smoking, only 43% of non-smokers of 13 to 19 years come from smoker's families.

61% of 13 to 19 years old smokers come from smoker's families, only 39% from non-smoker's families.
(Hans Krebs: Motivstudie Rauchen; Link 1997; http://www.letitbe.ch/pdf/fuerdiemedien/Kind%20De.pdf)

Lost workdays by smoker's diseases

-- the losses in economy by smoker's diseases and by diseases of smoker's smoke / passive smoke are enormous
(Passivrauch: Eigenschaften und Folgen; http://www.proaere.ch/d/data/data_36.pdf)

-- restaurants being smoker's restaurants until now are renounce automatically to many non-smokers as their clients
(Passivrauch: Eigenschaften und Folgen; http://www.proaere.ch/d/data/data_36.pdf)

-- researchers are warning: <When the smokers would smoke more and more outdoors, so also health risk would rise also there.>

Individuality by smoker's smoke / passive smoke

<According to indications of WHO partnership project Tobacco addiction about 25 to 35% of the disablement of work is staying in connection with tobacco consumption.>
(Schutz vor Passivrauchen am Arbeitsplatz: http://www.lfas.bayern.de/technischer_as/arbeitsstaetten_plaetze/arbeitsstaetten/nichtraucher/nichtrauch.htm)

Table: Effects of smoking habits to the working atmosphere
Disfavor for the employees
  • worse working atmosphere - tensions between smokers and non-smokers
  • sinking working motivation
  • health damages by exposure over years
  • endangering of the working place by often diseases
  • abortively retirement from work by disease
Disfavor for the enterprise
  • sinking production (loss of time by cigarette break, lack of motivation, ...)
  • higher costs of personal (more missing days, higher fluctuation)
  • higher sick leave: on the average smokers are 30 to 40% more ill than non-smokers
  • less motivation by disturbing the "business climate"
  • higher costs for cleaning
  • higher risk of fire damage etc.
(Schutz vor Passivrauchen am Arbeitsplatz ["Protection from passive smoking on the working station"]: http://www.lfas.bayern.de/technischer_as/arbeitsstaetten_plaetze/arbeitsstaetten/nichtraucher/nichtrauch.htm)


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8. Three joints are that harmful like a box of cigarettes

from: gmx: Medizin, 28 March 2006; http://www.gmx.net/de/themen/gesundheit/medizin/forschung/2116438,cc=000000185900021164381sevNY.html;
translation by Michael Palomino

<According to a new survey smoke from cannabis contains up to the sevenfold of bitumen and carbon monoxide than tobacco smoke.

This reports the French consumer review "60 millions de consommateurs" ["60 million of consumers", in whole France]. The review concludes: "Smoking three joints daily - which is more and more the case - is bringing the same risk of cancer and heart and lung diseases as smoking of a box of cigarettes." According to the survey cannabis "is the most consumed prohibited drug in France".

For the test the magazine provided resin and leaves of cannabis plants - given by the French inter board workgroup against drugs and addiction. From the raw materials the experts turned 280 joints. A smoking machine was smoking and measuring the pollutants - as also cigarettes are tested.

Also when the joint consisted only of pure "grass" without addition of tobacco the smoke of a joint contained more bitumen and carbon monoxide than the common "red" Marlboro cigarette. And also with filters the pollutant's level was higher than with the normal cigarette.>

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ARD Logo

9. Passive smoker's risk for heart diseases and lung cancer is 30% higher

from: Studie warnt vor Passivrauchen ["Survey warning from passive smoking"]; ARD text, 27 June 2006, table 521;
translation by Michael Palomino

<A new survey warns from the dangers of passive smoking. According to the survey passive smokers have a 30% higher risk of heart diseases and lung cancer. This is indicated by the report of the head of the United States Public Health Service. According to that almost half of all non-smokers in "USA" are regularly exposed to tobacco smoke. This smoke contains more than 50 substances which can cause cancer. Considering this result a prohibition of smoking in the interior of houses is the only way to protect the non-smokers, mean the experts.>

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Sunday, 8 October 2006

10. <Ban of smoking for parents - passive smoking children>

from: n-tv online; 8 October 2006; http://www.n-tv.de/719021.html; translation by Michael Palomino

<In a discussion about prohibition of smoking the call for a better protection of children from tobacco smoke of their parents is always more uttered. The SPD health expert Karl Lauterbach said to "Sunday Bild" that children earn a special protection: "Parents smoking in their cars or in closed interior rooms with their children should be forbidden." Lauterbach complemented: "Children forced to passive smoking have more diseases of allergies ans asthma and later they often also are addicted."

Also the drug delegated of the Federal Government, Sabine Bätzing (SPD), said to "Sunday Bild" that she favors a prohibition of smoking in cars to protect children, and she wants to examine a law. Karl-Heinz Florenz (CDU), the board chairman of the committee for public health in European's parliament, had the same meaning: "The concentrations of pollutants in a car in which is smoked are  about 30 fold higher than the limit of fine dust which is discussion at the moment in Brussels."

Doctors support the project having read the report. Eckart Laack, assistant medical doctor and tumor specialist at university hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, said: "60 babies die every year in Germany by passive smoking, all in all every year some 3,300 non-smokers die with diseases by passive smoking."

In the meantime French government is preparing a strict prohibition of smoking after the model of other European countries on all public places. "We plan a total prohibition without any exception", health minister Xavier Bertrand said to "Sunday Journal". The prohibition should be enforced at the beginning of 2007. One year is given to bars selling cigarettes, and to hotels, restaurants, discos and casinos. According to polls 70 to 80 percent of the Frenchmen favor such a prohibition of smoking.>


20 minuten,
<Passive smoking for children is pollutant no. 1>

from: 20 minuten online, 31 January 2008; http://www.20min.ch/news/schweiz/story/25463258;
translation by Michael Palomino

<Almost half of Swiss school children have to breath regularly nicotine polluted air. Above all children of lower social classes are affected.

Cancer League of Switzerland is joining the international campaign against passive smoking. Especially wants to fight for protection of children of passive smoking, Cancer League reported on Thursday. For children in Switzerland tobacco smoke is pollutant no. 1. Almost half of all school children - above all from lower social classes, are regularly exposed to cigarette smoke, justified Cancer League. Smoking parents are offered by Cancer Leage a so called stop smoking hotline (0848 000 181) on telephone giving help for stopping smoking. The international campaign against passive smoking is launched on coming Monday, the world cancer day. Source: AP>


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<Cardiovascular diseases: Children of smokers have a higher risk>

from: Spiegel ["Mirror"] online; 29 June 2009; http://www.spiegel.de/wissenschaft/mensch/0,1518,633203,00.html;
translation by Michael Palomino

<To open the window, to fawn the smoke away? This does not help. When parents are smoking more than ten cigarettes per day, their children have a higher risk for cardiovascular diseases. This was reported by researchers from Ulm [Germany]. At the worst this could lead to a heart attack later.

Ulm - Passive smoking risens the risk with children for later cardiovascular diseases. Scientists of Ulm university [Germany] and of Federal Health Board of Baden-Wuerttemberg of Stuttgart [Germany] found out that children who were exposed to cigarette smoke have significant chemical changes in their blood. There was known that adults had changed parameters of inflamation and metabolism by smoking and passive smoking and this would promote arteriosclerosis. But there was no research about children until now. This changed: For their survey the scientists analyzed blood levels of 383 youngsters of fourth primary school degree, as the journal "European Heart Journal" reported. Add to this the parents of the children were asked by a form, among others about their cigarette consumption. When the researchers linked the results of both surveys a significant result came out: Parents with a cigarette cunsumption of more than ten cigarettes per day provoked several higher levels of inflamation markers in the blood of their children. And certain levels of metabolism markers showing functioning metabolism procedures were lower. "This accumulation of negative changes risens the risk of the children to get an early arteriosclerosis", director of studies Wolfgang Koenig ["King"], boss of the workgroup for preventive cardiology at Ulm university [Germany], said. With this there are sediments at the bloodvessel walls which under certain circumstances can be pulles down or pulled off and at the worst can provoke a heart attack.

Now the researchers want to perform a long term study with the long term development of the inflamation reaction. "In childhood is laid a lot of the basics for later health. That's why we have to know more about such conditions like passive smoking which is occurring often in life", Koenig ["King"] said.


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11. Passive smoking doubles the risk for breast cancer of women

from: BLICK online: Passivrauchen verdoppelt Krebsrisiko [passive smoking doubles cancer risk]; 25.10.2006; http://www.blick.ch/news/ausland/artikel47742; translation by Michael Palomino

<Sinking tolerance to public smoking is more and more reinforced: A German survey proves now how damaging is passive smoking above all for women under 50 years.

Regular passive smoking is more damaging as already have been known. A scientific survey shows now that passive smoking doubles the risk of breast cancer of women under 50 years!

This outstanding result was shown by an analysis of 26 scientific studies. This was reported by German Cancer Help in Bonn today.

In Switzerland every year 5,300 women get breast cancer. This means: Every day 14 women get the frightening diagnosis, every year 1,350 women are dying of breast cancer. And: The risk to get it is even higher over the age of 50! But the analysis of the 26 German studies also shows that women passive smoking before the climacteric period get the dramatical higher breast cancer risk.

"As long as there is no prohibition of smoking in public places in Germany above all the young women working in gastronomy have a much higher breast cancer risk", Dagmar Schipanski, the women president of the German Cancer Help, warned.

Also experts of Switzerland were disturbed by these results. "Smoking rises the rate of breast cancer, passive smoking also for sure. But the percentage is this high that it's alarming", Barbara Iseli of Swiss Cancer League said to Blick Online.

As here in the country also in Germany are more and more voices for an all in all prohibition of smoking in public places, also in gastronomy. In the face of such figures and risks also the rows of the enemies of a prohibition of smoking would come down more and more.>

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12. Animals are also smoking: cancer with domestic animals by passive smoking

from: Auch Katzen kriegen Raucherlungen [Also cats get smoker's lungs]; gmx news, http://portal.gmx.net/de/themen/wissen/tiere/haustiere/4529870-Auch-Katzen-kriegen- Raucherlungen,cc=000007091900045298701JreI6.html; translation by Michael Palomino

<Berlin (dpa/tmn) - Also when smokers say that health is not important they should resign to nicotine to protect their cat, animal rights activists said. It's proved that passive smoking can provoke cancer at the animals, Action Animal in Berlin reported.

The four-legged friends are more in danger than other domestic animals. So, cats in smoker's households have a doubled cancer rate than the cats in non-smoking households. When two persons are smoking in the household, the risk will be fourfold, was said in reference to US American studies.

Autopsy of cats from smoker's households have significantly more black layers in their lungs. It's presumed that cats get more ill than other animals because they adapt the pollutants not only by their lungs but also by their gastro-intestinal system by their intensive fur tending.>


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                  minuten, Logo

13. <Waiter passive smoking up to 2 boxes of cigarettes per day>

from: 20 minutes online, 13 February 2008; http://www.20min.ch/news/schweiz/story/31304807; translation Michael Palomino

<Service staff always is exposed to passive smoke. Now a survey searched about the cigarette smoke which is breathed without intention.

Service staff in restaurants, bars or discos is suffering by the smoking guests. Daily they breathe a quantity which corresponds to 15 to 38 cigarettes. This is the result of a survey presented on Wednesday in the Valais canton center for tobacco prevention (CIPRET).

The survey which was performed in Valais last year is one of the first ones concerning with passive smoke charges. The results were presented last May already.

For the survey there were distributed 1,500 badges with nicotine measuring instruments to the public in the beginning of 2007. 630 of them were handed back for analysis of CIPRET as was reported in Swiss Medical Review on Wednesday.

Almost all badge bearer were affected

Almost all of the badge bearers between three months up to 82 years were exposed to passive smoking. The most exposed were the service staff who were breathing the quantity of smoke which corresponds to the consumption of 15 to 38 cigarettes every day - depending from the working location.

Only 5.7% of the experimentees had a low exposure to passive smoke (corresponding to a consumption of less than 0.2 cigarettes per day). All other persons within the survey were affected more or less. The dose was 1 or 2 equivalents up to more 10 equivalents daily.

Argument for prohibition of smoking

298 women and 299 men sent back their badge to CIPRET. Another 26 measuring devices were installed permanently in rooms or offices.
The survey of the Romand institute for working safety in Lausanne wants to quantify the exposure to passive smoke, having arguments for the realization of a prohibition of smoking, the researchers write.

Petition launched

CIPRET had launched a petition for a prohibition of smoking in public places. A whole-sale solution for whole Switzerland can need a long time because this needs a new national law, were the arguments of the organization.

With this petition CIPRET is backed in the Valais canton's parliament. In the Great Council were made some petitions also claiming for a prohibition of smoking in public sphere.

Source: SDA/ATS>


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14. Foetus is smoking during passive smoking - sudden infant death syndrome more often

from: n-tv online: Verqualmte Schwangerschaft. Plötzlicher Kindstod häufiger [Smoked pregnancy. Sudden infant death syndrome more often]; 15 February 2008; http://www.n-tv.de/919861.html?150220081722; translation Michael Palomino

<According to a survey babies are dying more often because of sudden infant death when mothers are exposed regularly to cigarette smoke during their pregnancy. Not only active smoking, but also passive smoking can rise the risk for the baby.

"Even a little charge of nicotine to the growing foetus in the uterus can have the effect that the reaction to lack of oxigen is affected significantly", Prof. Harald Morr from German Lung Foundation in Hannover indicated according to a new survey of Canadian researchers.

According to these indications nicotine hampers special cells in the body which can detect lack of oxigen and should react to it. For example, when a baby's position is on it's stomach and with the face on the cushion, the cells would indicate at once the degraded oxygen supply. The baby's reaction is a turn of it's head to the side. The experts warns that this live saving alarming system is reduced significantly.
The protecting mechanism is provoked by certain body's own hormones. Only in the last months of the live the baby's body begins to produce these hormones. By nicotine the this ripening process is hampered. "For this it's not necessary that the mother would have smoked herself - passive smoking is already enough", Morr says. By this in the transition period - until the hormones are built and the alarm system would function - the babies are specially endangered to die on sudden infant death syndrome.>


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Computers from smokers not repaired because of passive smoking effects

from: n-tv online: Technique: No guaranty for Macs filled with smoke. (orig.: Technik: Keine Garantie für verqualmte Macs. Apple schockt Raucher http://www.n-tv.de/technik/Apple-schockt-Raucher-article606549.html

<Smokers have hard life in USA. Now Apple resigns to guarantees of computer repair because computers having been in smoker's smoke could endanger service technitians. Consumerist reports about three users claiming.

All three had problems with their good computers and wanted a repair within guarantee deadline. But Apple resigned work of service staff with their computers because their computers are "contaminated" by cigarette smoke. "Second hand smoke" is a not acceptable health risk, was indicated.

The clients indicated that this was not indicated in the purchase treaty that smokers would loose their guarantee. But Apple indicated that all three clients had a dear guarantee "AppleCare". Also Consumerist could not provoke any response from the computer manufacturer.


(orig. German:
Raucher haben's in den USA nicht leicht. Jetzt müssen sie auch noch damit leben, dass Apple ihnen Garantieleistungen verweigert, weil ihre vollgequalmten Geräte die Service-Techniker gefährden könnte. The Consumerist berichtet von drei Nutzern, die dem Portal ihr Leid geklagt haben.

Alle drei hatten Probleme mit ihren edlen Rechnern und gaben sie innerhalb der Garantiezeit zur Reparatur. Doch Apple lehnte es ab, seine Serviceleute an den Geräten arbeiten zu lassen, weil die Computer durch Zigarettenrauch "kontaminiert" seien. Der "Second-Hand-Rauch" stelle für die Techniker ein nicht hinnehmbares Gesundheitsrisiko dar, hieß es.

Die empörten Kunden wiesen Apple daraufhin, dass in den Garantiebestimmungen nirgends ein Hinweis zu finden sei, dass durch Rauchen am Rechner die Garantie erlöschen könnte. Die Einwände ließen Apple aber bisher ebenso kalt, wie die Tatsache, dass alle drei sich die teure Garantieerweiterung "AppleCare" geleistet hatten. Auch The Consumerist  konnte dem pingeligen Computerhersteller keine Stellungnahme entlocken.



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16. 28.5.2010: Passive smoking is promoting Diabetes 2

from: n-tv online: Health: Danger in tobacco smoke: passive smoking provoking Diabetes (orig. German: Gesundheit: Gefahren, die im Tabakqualm lauern: Passivrauchen macht zuckerkrank); 28.5.2010; http://www.n-tv.de/wissen/gesundheit/Passivrauchen-macht-zuckerkrank-article894437.html


<Despite protection law from passive smoking in Hamburg many restaurants are full of cigarette smoke.

Passive smoking promites the risk for Diabetes. Scientists of Helmholtz Cetner of Munich and of German Diabetes Center in Dusseldorf detected a connection between quantity of cigarette smoke inhauled with outbreak of Diabetes 2. In journal "European Journal of Epidemiology" they published the results of ain investigation about kooperative health research in Augsburg region (KORA).

There was known allready from diverse epidemiologic studies that active smoking is aumenting the risk for Diabetes 2 (often called adult onset diabetes). But passive smoking was not investigated yet sufficiently.

So there were investigations by scientists between 1999 and 2001 with 1,351 persons without illness between 55 and 74 years on diabetes. Christa Meisinger from helmholz Center of Munich and her collegues were using a special sugar cargo test (OGTT). No one had diabetes at the beginning of the investigation. But some had high levels of a pre-stage diabetes.

Passive smokers are in danger

After seven years the scientists were inspecting 887 of the test persons from the the first random test if there had developed any Diabetes 2. For the active smokers the known connections were confirmed: Who had smoked at the beginning of the investigation had a significant higher risk of Diabetes. With passive smokers the effect also was clear: Non smokers who were exposed to passive smoking at ahome or at their work station, had a risk of Diabetes more than the double than test persons without active nor passive smoking.

In another investigation only pre diabetes was considered. Again diabetes risk had aumented massively by acrive or passive smoking compared with the total of the test persons.


<Trotz des Passivraucherschutzgesetz in Hamburg bleiben viele Kneipen verraucht.

Passivrauchen erhöht das Risiko für die Zuckerkrankheit. Wissenschaftler des Helmholtz Zentrums München und des Deutschen Diabetes-Zentrums in Düsseldorf haben nach Angaben einen Zusammenhang zwischen dem Einatmen von Tabakqualm und der Erkrankung an Typ 2-Diabetes gefunden. Die im Fachmagazin "European Journal of Epidemiology" veröffentlichten Ergebnisse basieren auf einer Auswertung von Daten der Studie für Kooperative Gesundheitsforschung in der Region Augsburg (KORA).

Bekannt war durch verschiedene epidemiologische Studien bereits, dass Aktivrauchen zu einem erhöhten Risiko für Typ 2-Diabetes (oft auch Altersdiabetes genannt) führt. Ob auch Passivrauchen das Entstehen der Erkrankung beeinflusst, war bisher nicht hinreichend untersucht worden.

Um dies zu überprüfen, testeten die Wissenschaftler von 1999 bis 2001 zunächst 1351 nicht erkrankte Probanden im Alter von 55 bis 74 Jahren auf Diabetes. Christa Meisinger vom Helmholz Zentrum München und ihre Kollegen nutzten dazu einen besonders genauen Zuckerbelastungstest (OGTT). Zum Zeitpunkt der Basisuntersuchung war keiner der Probanden an Diabetes erkrankt. Allerdings ergab der OGTT bei einigen Probanden einen Blutzuckerwert, der eine Diabetes-Vorstufe anzeigte.

Gefährdete Passivraucher

Nach sieben Jahren untersuchten die Wissenschaftler an 887 Studienteilnehmern aus der ersten Stichprobe, ob sie einen Typ 2- Diabetes entwickelt hatten. Für die Aktivraucher bestätigten sich die schon bekannten Zusammenhänge: Wer zum Zeitpunkt der ersten Untersuchung geraucht hatte, wies ein signifikant erhöhtes Diabetesrisiko auf. Aber auch Passivrauchen hat einen deutlichen Effekt: Nichtraucher, die zum ersten Untersuchungszeitpunkt zu Hause oder am Arbeitsplatz Passivrauch ausgesetzt waren, hatten ein mehr als doppelt so hohes Risiko, an Typ 2-Diabetes zu erkranken wie Studienteilnehmer, die weder aktiv noch passiv rauchten.

In einer weiteren Auswertung bezogen die Wissenschaftler nur die in der Basisuntersuchung erkannten Prädiabetiker ein. Bei diesen war das Diabetesrisiko durch Aktiv- und Passivrauchen im Vergleich zur gesamten Studiengruppe noch einmal deutlich erhöht.



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10.12.2010: Children exposed to passive smoking suffer more often dangerous infections of meningococcus

from: Spiegel online: Health of children: passive smokers suffer more of dangerous infections (orig. German: Kindergesundheit: Passivraucher leiden öfter an gefährlichen Infektionen); 10.12.2010; http://www.spiegel.de/wissenschaft/medizin/0,1518,733919,00.html


<Reuters / HHS

When parents are smoking at home, so they are damaging health of their children. A new analysis confirmed that smoke is a risk for infections with mengingococcus bacteria. These bacteria can cause difficultmeningitis.

Passive smoking is very dangerous for children. When there is smoking prohibited in working stations, in railway stations or in restaurants - so cigarrettes are only allowed in the own flat. So children are passive smoking against their will. According to a projection of World Health Organization WHO 166.000 children are dying per year by passive smoking. Scientists named heart problems, general respiratory problems, asthma and lung cancer as the mostly causes.

An international team of scientists investigates now it passive smoking also augments the risk of difficult bacterial infections. Scientist Chien-Chang Lee from harvard School of Public Health in Boston analyzed 42 earlier studies about the connecton of passive smoking and infections with meningococus, pneumococcus and haemophilus influenzae B. This was reported in journal "PLoS Medicine".

Infection with these germs can cause very different consequences because the germs are occupying the body and can attack divers organs. In the study the scientists put the focus on meningitis and on epiglottis inflammation, on bacteria in the blood (bacteriemia) and agents on body localities where were heavy symptoms of illnesses. Teh bacteria mostly were given by droplet infectino wandering by the respiratory ducts into the body. In Germany the Permanent Vaccinaton Commision suggests a vaccionation against all three agents.

Infections with pneumococcus and haemophilus influenzae B were some more in smoker's households, but not relevant statistically - could be casual aberration.

But sensitivity to meningococcus was doubled with passive smoking children, especially with children from 0 to 6 years. Passive smoking is heavy for respiratory ducts, so the germs attack more often there. According to the scientists also the immune system suffers by the smoke. All together gets a higher risk.


<Wenn Eltern zu Hause rauchen, schaden sie der Gesundheit ihres Kindes: Einer neuen Analyse zufolge erhöht der Qualm das Risiko einer Infektion mit Meningokokken. Diese Bakterien können eine gefährliche Hirnhautentzündung auslösen.

Passivrauchen ist besonders für Kinder problematisch. Selbst wenn Rauchverbote greifen, so dass an Arbeitsplätzen, in Bahnhöfen oder Kneipen nicht mehr gequalmt werden darf - in den eigenen vier Wänden darf sich jeder Zigaretten anzünden. So rauchen Kinder oft unfreiwillig mit. Laut einer aktuellen Hochrechnung der Weltgesundheitsorganisation WHO sterben pro Jahr 166.000 Heranwachsende durch Passivrauchen. Die Forscher nannten Herzleiden, allgemeine Atemwegserkrankungen, Asthma und Lungenkrebs als häufigste Folgen.

Ein internationales Forscherteam hat jetzt untersucht, ob Passivrauchen auch das Risiko erhöht, an schwerwiegenden bakteriellen Infektionen zu erkranken. Die Forscher um Chien-Chang Lee von der Harvard School of Public Health in Boston analysierten dafür 42 früher durchgeführte Studien. Geprüft haben sie den Zusammenhang von Passivrauchen und Infektionen mit Meningokokken, Pneumokokken und Haemophilus Influenzae B, wie die Forscher im Fachmagazin "PLoS Medicine" berichten.

Die Ansteckung mit diesen Keimen kann sehr unterschiedlich verlaufen, da die Bakterien sich im Körper ausbreiten und verschiedene Organe befallen können. In der Studie achteten die Forscher auf Fälle bakterieller Hirnhaut- oder Kehldeckelentzündung, den Fund von Bakterien im Blut, der sogenannten Bakteriämie sowie das Auftauchen von Erregern an anderen Körperstellen, wo sie schwere Krankheitssymptome auslösten. Die Bakterien werden meist per Tröpfcheninfektion weitergegeben, wandern also über die Atemwege in den Körper ein. In Deutschland empfiehlt die Ständige Impfkommission allen Kindern Immunisierungen gegen alle drei Erreger.

Infektionen mit Pneumokokken und Haemophilus Influenzae B traten bei Kindern aus Raucherhaushalten etwas häufiger auf, allerdings war dies statistisch nicht relevant - es könnte sich um eine zufällige Abweichung handeln.

Die Anfälligkeit gegenüber Meningokokken verdoppelte sich allerdings für passivrauchende Kinder. Besonders schwer betroffen waren laut der Studie Kinder unter sechs Jahren. Passivrauchen belastet die Atemwege, so dass sie von sie angreifenden Keimen wahrscheinlich leichter eingenommen werden. Nach Aussage der Forscher leidet auch die Körperabwehr an sich unter dem Qualm. Beides zusammen würde ein erhöhtes Risiko erklären.


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Photo sources
-- symbol smokers go! http://www.berghoelzchen.de/36.html
-- skull: http://www.fontblog.de/C1024143296/E1288425958/
-- woman smoker with main stream smoke committing bodily injury: http://www.wdr.de/themen/gesundheit/krankheit/krebsserie/050503.jhtml?pbild=1
-- Glärnisch with fresh air: http://www.wandersite.ch/Tageswanderung/840_Glarus.html
-- smoker blasting out, bodily injury is not important for him: http://www.bellacci.biz/foto/agosto/bocca.htm
-- main stream smoke - second hand smoke / side stream smoke: http://www.stern.de/wirtschaft/steuern/:Tabaksteuererh%F6hung-1,2-Cent-Zigarette/545032.html
-- Marlboro cigarette propaganda is propaganda for bodily injury: http://www.taringa.net/posts/imagenes/931963/%C2%BFTenes-Ganas-de-Fumar.html
-- cigarette with second hand smoke (side stream smoke): http://www.dr-bothe.de/Ratschlage/Herzinfarkt/herzinfarkt.html
-- smokers: culprits and victims and bodily injury: http://www.taps.org.br/fumo.htm
-- cigarettes not only contain tobacco: http://www.sncweb.ch/newsbox/newsbox_de.htm
-- Federal Department for Consumer's Protection (Bundesministerium für Verbraucherschutz), logo: http://www.bmelv.de/cln_045/DE/00-Home/__Homepage__node.html__nnn=true
-- certificate smoke-free restaurant: http://www.idph.state.il.us/tobacco/smoke-freecert.htm
-- x-ray photo of lung cancer: http://www.emedicinehealth.com/articles/15405-9.asp
-- asthma inhalator: http://www.dhcc.ae/en/Default.aspx?type=1&id=27
-- heart attack ambulance: http://portale.web.de/FitundGesund/msg/5969730/
-- extra class because of delayed development because of passive smoking of the parents: http://www.bzi-interlaken.ch/index2.htm?../004_1_10stuetzkurs.htm
-- premature birth: http://www.stern.de/wissenschaft/mensch/:Fr%FChgeburt-243-Gramm-Leben/534050.html
-- child 4 years old: http://www.familie.de/de/baby_kind/3-5jahre/2005/20050413_fantastischefreunde.php?navid=5

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