Kontakt / contact       Hauptseite /
                        page principale / pagina principal / home         zurück / retour / indietro / atrás / back
<<          >>

Norbert G. Pressburg: Good bye Mohammed - Muhammad never existed

8. "Golden Age" of Muhammad Fantasy Islam - transfigured glances into a nonexistent Fantasy past

8d. Since 750: Arab-Jesus Fantasy Christian Abbasids with scientific boom - Arabic-Jesus Fantasy Christian or Arabic-humanist scholars - medicine and faults in translations

8d. Jesus Fantasy Arabic-Christian or Arabic-humanistic scholars -- The documents of the private tutor al-Kindi -- documents of the private teacher al-Kindi: Earth physics and Indian numbers (Arabic numerals) -- documents of the private teacher al-Kindi: low tide and high tide, stars and trees -- The scholar Hunain ibn Ishak - crucial falsifications in translations -- Translations and forgeries of translator Hunain ibn Ishak: "Gods" become a Fantasy "God", Fantasy "angels", Fantasy "saints" - and new Arab creations -- Thabit ibn Kurra (born 834): Philosopher against the new fashion of a Fantasy God -- Religious diversity is standard -- Ibn Kurra becomes government consultant and astronomer -- Doctor Muhamad ibn Zakarija ar-Razi (born 865 in Rajj / Tehran) - translations - religion is troublemaking -- Ar-Razi with medicine - the great translation "Liber Continens" of 1486 in Brescia -- Ar-Razi with philosophy: atomic matter, Fantasy God, Fantasy world soul, space, time - Fantasy prophets Moses, Jesus and Muhammad are rejected as troublemakers -- Al-Farabi: philosopher in Aleppo - religion is an invention - the ideal state, etc. -- Ibn al-Haitham: dam project on the Nile fails - translations - physics - optics and astronomy with experiments - book burning by Muhammad Fantasy Muslims -- Abu Ali ibn Sina - scientist in Bukhara - persecuted by the Turkic tribe of the Qara Khanides - minister with military treatise - new works written in prison -- Avicenna: death by parsley seeds and opium 1037 - life of a medical doctor -- Al-Biruni of Kath near the Aral Lake - life of an astronomer and philosopher -- Ibn Rushd - persecuted philosopher in Seville and Córdoba through the introduction of the Muhammad judiciary

presented by Michael Palomino (2015 / 2019 / translation 2019) - p.172-178; p.156-157

Teilen / share:


8d. From 750: Arab-Jesus Fantasy Christian Abbasids with scientific blossoming - Arabic-Jesus Fantasy Christian or Arabic-humanist scholars

Most of the Arab scholars were also medical doctors, either in the main or secondary occupation [p.163].

By 750, the power of the Marwanids had come to an end. Their successors, the "Abbasids," built their residences further to the east, primarily in Baghdad and Samarra [[north of Baghdad]]. Under the reign of some of their rulers, sciences had a heyday. Here was the base for the widely spread opinion that the [[Muhammad Fantasy]] Islamic Middle Ages were far superior to the European ones: these are the "golden times" of the [[invented Muhammad Fantasy]] Islamic sciences.

The files of the tutor al-Kindi

Jakub ibn Ishak al-Kindi was born around 800 in the cultural city of Kufa in Mesopotamia [p.157]. Al-Kindi has left more than 200 books. He sometimes seems confused and unfinished, but the focus of his always the propagation of independent thinking. He called himself a "philosopher" which was a foreigh word at that time, and he always underlined the importance of the knowledge of the truth, not important from which source it comes. He marked the beginning of a serie of Arab philosophers. His thinking is totally opposed to the [[Muhammad Fantasy]] Quranic doctrine [p.158].

[Documents of private teacher al-Kindi: earth physics and Indian numbers (Arabic Numerals)]
It was the reign of the inquisitive and enlightened ruler al-Mamun in Baghdad. There is no indication about the educational path of al-Kindi [p.157], but he became the private teacher of a nephew of Mamun, who later became ruler Mutasim. Some of his instruction material has survived. For example the analysis why the Earth is a ball floating freely in the space. Another treatise prescribes calculating with "Indian figures". This is precisel y the number system that we call "Arabic numerals". Ic comes in fact from India and was transferred by Arab communication to Europe.

[Private tutor al-Kindi's files: low tide and high tide, stars and trees]
Al-Kindi tried to explain low tide and high tide with the heat of friction by the moon during his orbit. Another topic was the trial forming a logic bridge to Muhammad Fantasy Quran with quotations as for example stars and trees would worship [[a Fantasy]] God in a prostrate position. He claims with this the principle of the absolute regularity - but one has to consider that he is adding to the stars a face and an ear - with facial and auditory sense. He wrote a work about "cause and effect" which was dedicated to Mamun. With this he installed a sharp contrast to one of the main sentences of the [[Muhammad Fantasy]] Quran doctrine which is denying causality strictly but is postulation [[a Fantasy]] will of [[a Fantasy]] God.

His base of thinking comes from Aristotle and Ptolemy, combined with old oriental traditions, and it seems that he was specially near to Old Babylonian star worshipers. [p.158]
-- al-Kindi - Mossad Wikipedia link (Engl.)]

The scholar Hunain ibn Ishak - crucial falsifications in translations

Hunain ibn Ishak was what today would be called a scientific publisher and editor. He died in 873 and inherited a significant heritage of antique authors to the world. He was one of the great Arab scientists, but not a [[Muhammad Fantasy]] Muslim one. [...]

Hunain ibn Ishak (808-873) came from al-Hira in southern Mesopotamia. His father was a pharmacist, the son wanted to become a doctor and by this came to Baghdad. He attended the lectures of a certain Mr. Juhana ibn Masawahai which was also a Syrian [[Jesus Fantasy]] christian and a personal medical doctor of the [[Muhammad Fantasy]] caliph. Teaching material were the normal Greek authors, especially the famous medical doctor Galen from Pergamon. By some reason (there are indications that he was too impertinent) Hunain was kicked out from the lectures by his teacher and then a migration followed [p.158] visiting different towns, probably also [[Jesus Fantasy]] Byzantium. After six years he came back to Baghdad beginning with translations of scientific standard works from Antique into Arab or into other languages ordered by clients. He masterfully mastered ancient and all common regional languages. Due to his medical education, he had the best conditions for subject-specific translations, but his spectrum encompassed the entire sciences of that time. One time, he sent one of his works in an anonymous way to his former teacher Ibn Masawahai.

"The one who produced it must have been supported by the [[Fantasy]] Holy Spirit!", he is said to have proclaimed deeply impressed.

[Translations and forgeries of translator Hunain ibn Ishak: "Gods" become "God", "angels", "saints" - and new Arab creations]
Hunain became a very busy man so hewas instructing his son and his nephew as translators for standard texts. He himself was working with the scientific main work. This work began with the finding of old manuscripts. There were numerous incomplete works to have, fragments in different languages, or from different copyists. When Hunain had gathered certain material, he went on comparing it. He knew very well of course that manuscripts contained mistakes: in writing, in translation, there were forgeries. On the base of his comparisons he then made the best possible translation. He made his own register of translations, his catalogue (which was found only in 1918). He had the specific habit to translate and rename the "ancient gods" [[extraterrestrials]] in the texts as "One [[Fantasy]] God", [[Fantasy]] "angel" or [[Fantasy]] "saints".

Unlike others, he did not content himself with the Greek terminology, but created Arabic words for it. And he ordered extra-heavy paper in Sarkand where Chinese paper production tecnique was known. His works were rated with silver in the meantime. [...]
--Hunain ibn Ishak - Mossad Wikipedia link (Engl.)]

Thabit ibn Kurra (born 834): a philosopher against the neo-modern Fantasy God

[Religious diversity is standard]
"Who installed the ports and channels, who revealed the secret sciences? To whom the deity has revealed, to whom [p.159] the oracle was given and future topics were taught when not to the wise among the non-believers? They studied everything, they explained the healing of the souls and they presented their salvation, they also searched the healing of the body, and they fulfilled the world with wisdom, with the most important virtue."
The person wrigint this was a non-believer: the Sabian [85]
[85] Saban: Follower of a Babylonian-Chaldean star cult

Thabit ibn Kurra, born in 834 in Harran in today's eastern Turkey. And he was a convinced non-believer (pagan). When he was discussing with followers of the newly upcoming religion an then they put the all mighty of [[a Fantasy]] God in the center, he countered with the question:
"Can your [[Fantasy]] God also effect that five times five is not twenty-five?"
For him, the new fashion of [[only one Fantasy]] God could only have the power over the creatures in the best case, but not over the creation itself. He himself was a creature. Their belief had the old Babylonic star cult as it's root, modified with the influence of Greek antique manner of thinking. All prophets worshipped the Sabians, wise men knowing about the past, with them also Greek philosophers [86].
[86] One can see, in the 9th century yet there was a variety of religions existing in the empire of the so called Caliphs. [[Muhammad Fantasy]] Islam was not at all the established, dominating religion yet.
A traditional motto was: "Plato said: whoever is recognizing himself becomes divine." [87]
[87] This was the inscription at the door knocker of a Sabian house in Harran (after al-Masudi).

[Ibn Kurra becomes a government assist (consultant) and an astronomer]
Passing the town of Harran, a high-ranking personality became aware of the educated Sabian taking him to Baghdad. This high-ranking personality was more a dilettant in science. Thabit now was writing tractates in his name and became something like a free staff member for astronomic questions in Hunain's cultural business. Later he was accepted in the circle of court astronomers and he became a confidant and close friend of the ruler al-Mutatid.

Without exception all important scientists and philosophers were staff members at court at least for some time. A carreer was not possible in another way at that time. Thabit was perfectly mastering the Greek language, he was occupies with philosophy, mathematics, and medicine. Among [p.160] others, he left us a book on the questions of the medical doctor to the ill patients. He meant that behind the name of "Hippocrates" in fact four authors had to be. But as a Sabian, his focus was astronomy. Among others, he was fascinated by the little differences of lenght of the years. Coming from the Ptolemaic system, he assumed a slight movement of the fixed star sphere, the so called trepidation which also found its way yet with Copernicus. Thabit is mentioned as Thebit in the "Parzival" of Wolfram von Eschenbach. He died in 901.
-- Thabit ibn Kurra - Mossad Wikipedia link (Engl.)]

Ar-Razi: medical doctor Muhamad ibn Zakarija ar-Razi (born 865 in Rajj / Tehran) - translations - religion is troublemaking

[Ar-Razi with medicine - the great translation "Liber Continens" of 1486 in Brescia]
There is another medical capacity to report, beginning as a musician as a lute player: Muhamad ibn Zakarija ar-Razi, born in 865 in Rajj, today's Tehran. We don't know much about his biography, but we know that he was a hospital manager in Bagdad and in Rajj, and he was a good friend of the local Emir al-Mansur ibn Ishak. But his professional heritage is great, ar-Razi was the greatest clinician in the Arab world, and he was well known in Europe under the name "Rhazes".

He dedicated a medical encyclopedia to his patron Mansur. The Latin translation of Chapter 9, which is very popular in Europe, was called "Liber Nonus Almansurus" [English: "The ninth book of al-Mansur"]. It contained a remedy guide, assigned to the individual diseases from head to toe, and was even available in some European popular languages.

Another treatise - which was very famous in Europe - concerned measles and smallpox, which was printed even in England in the 18th century [88].
[88] Ar-Razi: About smallpox and measles; German reprint and translation by K. Opitz; Leipzig 1911
(original German: Über die Pocken und Masern; Deutscher Nachdruck und Übersetzung von K. Opitz; Leipzig 1911)
When he died in 925, he left to ar-Razi a huge amount of Greek excerpts on clinical cases being completed with own observations and experience. This heritage was systematically rearranged by his scholars and was edited and printed in 1486 in Brescia with it's title "Liber Continens" [English: "Collected Edition"], all in all two huge volumes (tomes).

As every famous medical doctor of that time, Rhazes had also a big philosophic wisdom because philosophy was [p.161] in big parts the base for his medical theories. Greek philosophers and Hippocrates [89] and Galen [90] were very familiar to him.

     [89] Hippocrates of Kos, physician, circa 460-370 BC.
     [90] [Galen]: Roman physician, 129-216 AD; together with Hippocrates the most important physician of antiquity.

Rhazes proved a great deal of independent thinking, but he never brought any innovations without honoring respect to the great Galen:
"In fact, it has been painful for me to rebel against the one who has overwhelmed me most with all the benefits and was the most helpful in guiding me through whom I have followed, step by step. But medicine is a philosophy that cannot accept any stand still. " [91]
[91] In contrast, there was a medical doctor Avicenna (Persian physician and scholar) was mentioning Galen with bad comments at every opportunity.
While Galen believed that the soul was dependent on the constitution of the body, Rhazes said that the physical condition was determined by the soul. The practical consequence of this was that he [[Rhazes]] advised the medical doctors to always encourage the patient, even if they were not sure of their own cause.

[Ar-Razi with philosophy: atomic matter, [[a Fantasy]] God, world soul, space, time - [[a Fantasy]] prophet Moses, [[a Fantasy]] Jesus and [[a Fantasy]] Muhammad are rejected as troublemakers]
Also in philosophy, ar-Razi was going his own path. Following Democritus, he assumed that matter is of atomic matter (earth, fire, air, and water). Next to that, he put [[a Fantasy]] God, a [[Fantasy]] world soul, an absolute space, and an absolute time, he saw the Cosmos also in a multidimensional way. The [[Fantasy]] Creator of the [[fantasy]] Bible and of the [[Fantasy]] Quran were only added and were not really powerful. Prophets were  recognized by Rhazes as necessary mediators of the substance of [[the Fantasy]] God and of mankind, but he did not recognize "the three deceivers of Moses, Jesus and Muhammad" [92],
[92] This is a saying which provoked many discussions. May be this saying is not from ar-Raiz himself, but he was stating it and made it popular.
who had only spread discord. His [[Muhammad Fantasy]] "Imam" (he used this expression) is Socrates.

Does speak a [[Muhammad Fantasy]] Muslim in that way how this ar-Razi is always taken for granted?

Rhazes died in 925, in his last years he was blind [p.162].
-- ar-Razi - Mossad Wikipedia link (Engl.) ]

Al-Farabi: philosopher in Aleppo - religion is an invention - the ideal state etc.

Al-Farabi was "only" a scientist, mainly an interpreter of Aristotle and other Greek philosophers, to whom he added his own variation. He was separating consciously medicine from philosophy because it would be it's [the medicine's] purpose to provoke a change in fact in the body, but it [medicine] had nothing to do with finding the truth.

The word "Al-Farabi" just means "The one from Farab", that's a town of today's Kazakhstan where he was born in 870. Farabi may have been an Ethnic Kazakh. Reports state that he never considered clothes as important always walking around in a shabby Kazakh caftan. From his youth times little is known. Only this: he was on the way to the Persian Harran in young years already, and then heading for Baghdad where he was instructed by [[Jesus Fantasy]] teachers. Most of his time he spent here, during the last part of his life he went to Aleppo in Syria to the court of Emir Saif al-Daula. For a short time he went to Cairo and after coming back to Syria he died soon in 950. [[Muhammad Fantasy]] clergy demonstrativel rejected the partidipation at his funeral.

There were good reasons for this: because Farabi was teaching many things that could not please to the [[Muhammad Fantasy]] imams, whereas he was always eager for a balance between philosophy and religion. But his main work was a further development with his Aristotle. He presented the world as continuous unity: their origin was [[a Fantasy]] God, but not as a creator as it was considered in [[Muhammad Fantasy]] Quran and in the [[Moses+Jesus Fantasy]] Bible, but as a non personificated source of being. It [[this source of being]] is the source of movement flowing out, the so called emanation, of which the lower levels thank their existence. The lowest level of hierarchy is forming the matter into which man is entangled. Man can reach higher worlds only by thinking, by mystical absorption or by death. The noblest task of man is to become one a unity by conceiving the world and the universe with the universal intelect. But this luck is achievable only for some few - and for the rest, religion is made [93].
[93] Similarly, Ibn Ruschd formulated it with his "two truths".
Farabi considered religion as an artificial product, but as a necessity for the majority of people [p.163].

In this way of thinking, he designs an ideal state. Similarly to Plato, he demands a philosophical king, but with a prophet as assist, for giving orders to the state's population where only little sense of reason exists.

His philosophy is anti-religious, but he provides clergymen for everyday practice who should have influence to the uneducated mass.

Al-Farabi was not on stage like the others, but he preferred to spend his time in the garden by the pond.
-- Al-Farabi - Mossad Wikipedia link (Engl.)]

Ibn al-Haitham: Dam project on Nile River fails - translations - physics - optics and astronomy with experiments - book burning by Muslims

965 was the year of birth of a certain Ibn al-Haitham, who should be known in Europe under the name "Alhazen". He came from Basra and first started a civil service career as a state's staff member. However, he gave it soon up devoting himself to scientific studies in Baghdad and Persia. Some day, the counter Caliph in Cairo became aware of him, and when Alhazen uttered the possibility of damming the Nile River getting a total year irrigation on the fields, he was called to Egypt for being the manager of the project. The group with it's equipment was going the Nile River upwards for this dam project. But soon came doubts comparing the old Egyptian monuments along the river. When those people who had built these monuments could not have installed a dam, how should he success? In Assuan where is the dam of today, he found the suitable place, but he had to realize soon that this project was not possible. Without installing a dam he returned to Cairo and could be happy to survive instead of this failure.

Then, he was doing the typical work of scientists of his time: he was translating antique writings. He was working for years for a complete edition of Euclid, of the "Almagest" of Ptolemy, and of writings of other Greek authors. This made him financially independent by the time, so that he could work on his favorite topic: physics, and particularly optics [94].
[94] His major work was widely recognized in Europe in Latin under the title "Thesaurus Opticus" [p.164].

Most of antique and Arab physicists were pure theoreticians, but Alhazen was also proceeding experiments which was new at that time. He was producing the first lens of glass pouring the glass itself. This lense was interestingly used for experiments, but was never used for practical purposes, e.g. as a magnifying glass or as a telescope. In contradiction to Euclid he stated that light beams of an object reach the eye and not a visual beam from the eye was scanning the environment. Using a coincave mirror of metal he stated a certain math problem which is known until today as "Alhazen's problem" and which he could solve with much work, but Huygens found a more elegant solution in the mid-17th century for it. Also basic laws of perspective due to the straight spreading light have their base of Alhazen.

His work with light beams led him consecuently also to the field of astronomy. He considered the worlds of the stars just as physical units, just sober conceivable and calculatable. On the bases of the refraction [[angles of the light beams]], he was calculating the thickness of the atmopshere with a wrong result of 5 mles, because he assumed a sharp separation and not a gradual thinning of the air. The appreciation of a work can be expressed with Alexander von Humboldt, who called the Arabs the real founders of physics. Ibn al-Haitham alias Alhazen was their most important representative in this field, although only parts of his complete works have survived, because soon his writings were burned as directed against the [[Muhammad Fantasy]] Quran.
-- Ibn al-Haitham - Mossad Wikipedia link (Engl.)]

Abu Ali ibn Sina - scientist in Bukhara - persecuted by the Turkic tribe of the Qara Khanides - minister with a military treatise - new writings in prison

Abu Ali ibn Sina became one of the most famous Arab personalities in Europe under the name "Avicenna". In the Orient he is still popular today; Iran, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan are vying for the honor to define him as one of their own.

There are still many puzzles in Avicenna's biography. The first is the year of his birth. It is known that Avicenna died in 1037. About his age, there are four different information, and it is not even sure whether there is talk of lunar or solar years - so there are eight birth dates one can choose. According to Lüling the age of 58 is the most probable, that means, Avicenna was born in 979. His family came from Buddhist stronghold Balch [p.165].

that's eight data to choose from. The most likely age to Lüling age is 58 years, that is, Avicenna was born in 979. His family came from the Buddhist stronghold Balch [p.165]
[95] This is Bactria of the Hellenistic period. Balch included parts of today's Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. The province was in the lifetime of Avicenna the Buddhist stronghold in the east of the Persian Empire. In Bamiyan, in 2001, the Taliban government blew up two monumental Buddha statues from that time.
in present-day Afghanistan, but he moved to the Samnite Kharmitan residence near Bukhara (Uzbekistan), where Avicenna was born. His father was a senior official at the court of the Buddhist Samnids [96].
[96] The name derives from the original residence Saman / Suman. From there the mane "Sumaniyya" comes from, the name for Buddhism at that time.

The origin of a well-off family home ensured the best education at that time. Basic education were "Ice luger" of Porphyrios and other classical writings, and of course he studied maths, geometry, physics, and medicine. The latter one, he did not call a difficult science. He was a tremendously hardworking worker studying also complete nights through, according to his own indications.

At 22, it was over with peace. The newly Islamized [[Muhammad Fantasy]] Turkic tribe of the Qara Khanides destroyed the [[Jesus Fantasy]] Samnid Empire and deported the surviving members of the Avicenna dynasty ("the need requiered me to move away") and he fled to Urgench, the capital of the province of Khorezmien.

Meanwhile, the Samanid prince al-Muntasir tried to regain control in a five-year struggle, but failed. And Avicenna was his follower. The doors that had previously been open to him closed again for political reasons.

"Then the need requiered me to move away": Avicenna left with his longtime teacher and companion Abu Sahl al-Masihi, the highly renowned scholar and former physician of the Samnid Urgentsch, and his lifelong walk from residence to residence continued.

"Then the need requiered me to move away". The formula became the common thread in Avicenna's life. He was a lifetime political refugee coming from a Buddhist world that came under [[Muhammad Fantasy]] Islamic pressure.

From Urgench Avicenna moved via Nisa, Abiward and other stations to Gurgan on the border of the Caspian Sea, his teacher and companion did not survive the hardships [p.166]. On the way, Avicenna occasionally ordained under a false name, his hope for a job with Sheikh Kabus of Gurgan did not fulfill. So he moved to Persian Hamadan to the court of Shams-ad-Dawla, from which he received a ministerial post. One day a military revolt against him brought him into serious trouble. Reason was his probably not very popular ministerial treatise "About the food and the pay of the army, the military slaves and soldiers and about the land tax of the territories". He survived also this with hardship, but a little time later he passed four months in prison because rumors stated that he had an agreement with the hostile Emir of Isfahan. He used this period in prison to write various writings. After more long and detailes entanglements, he finally fled to Isfahan being disguized as a [[Jesus Fantasy]] monch. What the real political background was, we can only speculate about it.

Avicenna: Death by parsley seeds and opium 1037 - life of a medic

Avicenna belonged towards the end of his life to the closest confidant of the Emir of Isfahan and accompanied him in this capacity and as a doctor on its military campaigns. On one such, in 1037, he died [p.167] at the age of 58. The circumstances of his death are narrated: In order to prepare for the flight he had expected to flee, he instructed an attending physician to mix a fortifying medicine. It mistakenly contained an overdose of parsley seeds and opium.

Avicenna led a very intense life. During the day he was busy with his various bread occupations, followed in the evening lectures and transcripts. But that was not the end of the day, as his pupil and collaborator al-Guzgani [97]
[97] The first half of his autobiography probably comes from Avicenna himself, the second half of his pupil and companion al-Guzgani.
"When we were done with it, singers of all sorts appeared, a wine-making estate with all that belonged to it was prepared, and we dealt with it."
"With the Master all powers were strongly developed, and under the forces of the desiring soul part, there was the sexual one the strongest and most dominated one."
(German: "Beim Meister waren alle Kräfte stark entwickelt, wobei unter den Kräften des begehrenden Seelenteils die sexuelle am stärksten und übermächtigsten war." )
Avecinna lived as it was known in all the country a dissolute festivity life.

Avicenna saw his vocation probably in politics, his bread professions were doctor, judge and scholar, in the latter role he created his philosophical work. His life was marked by the collapse of the Samnid Empire, which coincided with the collapse of the "Eastern Iranian Renaissance" as a whole. Avicenna's roots are undoubtedly Buddhist. He himself does not tell us anything directly and carefully avoids to represent any of the political parties. He never attracted attention by religiosity of any kind, and he was known for his not-islamic life. It can be admitted that he was also performing vivisections with dead bodies - which are forbidden in [[Muhammad Fantasy]] Islam. [[Jesus Fantasy]] Orthodox Church was always angry with him because he also rejected to recognise the necesity that a [[Fantasy]] prophet will come to instruct the world about [[Fantasy]] Revelation [98].
[98] There is a nice tradition from the 15th century, according to which the [[Fantasy]] prophet Mohammed complains to al-Magribi that Ibn Sina had come in contact with [[Fantasy]] God without his mediation.
(This is exactly a key phrase of "Sumaniyya", from Buddhism).

Avicenna left an extensive philosophical and medical writing material, although the rating of his philosophical work may seem exaggerated. "The Book of [p.168] Healing" or the "Canon", a systematic presentation of medicine, was among the standard works that made him famous in medieval Europe. With all this, he was "with a high nose", we would say arrogantly today, and he knew little consideration. Avicenna wrote about Rhazes wrote that he had better stay with the "investigation of skin diseases, urine and bowel movements". It can be considered certain that was revising works of his companion and teacher al-Masihi and then edited them as his ones.

Science notes a big jump from Hippocrates to Galen, but an even bigger one from Galen to Avicenna. He dominated for 500 years the medicine of the Orient and Europe, precisely until Paracelsus 1530 came out with a new era of medicine.

Avicenna was a great philosopher and the greatest physician of the Middle Ages. He was not a [[Muhammad Fantasy]] Muslim either.
-- Avicenna (Abu Ali ibn Sina) - Mossad Wikipedia link (Engl.)]

Al-Biruni from Kath near the Aral Sea (today: Aral Desert) - life of an astronomer and philosopher

Concerning non-medical sciences, today's research is inclined to give another Uzbek an even higher rank than Avicenna: al-Biruni. In Europe, he remained relatively unknown, perhaps because there was no biography of him for a long time. He was a countryman and contemporary of the slightly younger Avicenna. The two have also met, but friends - which was obviously not easy to be with Avicenna - they never were. Biruni was born in 976 in Kath in the south of Aral Sea [[which is a desert now - 2019]] and he came from  poor circumstances. He owed his rise to the local princely family, who integrated him and provided the best possible education. At the age of 16, he proceeded a determination of the geographical location of his hometown and also built quite early a hemispherical globe of the northern hemisphere [99].
[99] The next earth model was made by the a man from Nuremberg, Mr. Martin Behaim in 1492.

[The world's oldest known globe map is from Piri Reis and comes from a photo of extraterrestrials, see e.g. the movie of Däniken Remembering the Future - link (German) with many photos].
For political reasons Biruni had to leave his hometown in 995, one may assume that the reasons were the same as for the flight of Avicenna. Without his equipment, he moved to Rajj, today's Tehran. There he got to know an astronomer who was building an instrument for measuring the altitude of the sun. For the lunar eclipse which was calculated for 997 [p.169] Biruni arranged a meeting by letter with an astronomer in Baghdad to measure the event simultaneously and thus determine the distance angle between two viewpoints.

He then moved temporarily to Gurgan on the Caspian Sea, where he met Avicenna.

Biruni soon received a call to the court of Urgench. But the city was conquered by an enemy prince, who is said to have kidnapped Biruni to Ghazna in today's Afghanistan. In fact, it may be true that Biruni was part of a ransom payment. Ghazna was a Hindu stronghold and Prince Masud was very interested in science [100].
[100] Presumably, Masud was a Hindu, and this is almost certain considering [[Muhammad Fantasy]] Islamic historiography defaming him as a "drunkard".

[This is just a normal criminal defamation tactic of criminal 1 God religions, not important if it comes from Moses Fantasy Jewry, or from Jesus Fantasy Christianity, or from Muhammad Fantasy Islam].
Al-Biruni had found a new patron. He gave him the "Masonic Canon", the largest astronomical encyclopedia of the Middle Ages. He had to accompany his ruler on the numerous military campaigns that brought him to India. Out of this resulted his unique book, a cultural history of India: "A Critical Study of What India Says, Whether Accepted by Reason or Refused". For understand Indian mathematics and astronomy, he learned Sanskrit and reported in general very sensitively about the Indian culture. This was easy for him because - like Avicenna - he came from a Buddhist environment. Biruni was the only one of his fortune who was able, at least in part, to blow up the powerful Aristotelian system. He was an astronomer, physicist, geographer and philosopher - but he was, as an exception, not a medical doctor. He died in 1048 while discussing a legal problem. He was not [[a Muhammad Fantasy]] Muslim either.
-- Al-Biruni - Mossad Wikipedia link (Engl.)]

Ibn Rushd - philosopher in Seville and Córdoba - persecuted by the introduction of the Mohammed Fantasy judiciary

Now we move from the extreme eastern end of the Arab empires to the extreme west, "al Gharb" [101]:

    [101] Al Gharb: this means "The West"; from this word derives the name Algarve.

to Andalusia. In 1126, ibn Rushd was born in Córdoba who became famous at the European universities being called "Averroes" [[the Latin version of his name ibn Rushd]]. In the Arab world he remained unnoticed, only by his fame in Europe he was known there in the [S.170] modern times. He received the then best education we already know: philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, medicine and as a member of the judges (judiciary), he was also a lawyer.

In 1148, the [[Muhammad Fantasy]] Berber dynasty of the [[Muhammad Fantasy]] Almohads conquered Córdoba under the [[Muhammad Fantasy]] caliph Abu Jakub Yussef. In 1153 Ibn Ruschd was ordered to Marrakech to the residence of the ruler, a meeting he was looking forward to with great anxiety. At court, he was introduced by a certain Ibn Tufail, who is also no stranger in Europe: He had written the philosophical novel "The Naturals", in which the actors are lost on a desert island in the ocean and through observations and logical conclusions they realize the connections of the world [102].
[102] Ibn Tufail: Hajj ibn Jaqzan: The Natureman (German: Der Naturmensch); Cologne 1983
As a result, Ibn Rushd appeared as "Qadi" in Seville and Córdoba, but his main work was always his philosophical work. He was especially active in opposing the teachings of al-Ghazali because, in his opinion, they were destroying [[Muhammad Fantasy]] Islam. In 1195, he was struck by the fate: [[Muhammad Fantasy]] Imams had incited the people against him, who rated him a bad man since a long time, and they forced the [[Muhammad Fantasy]] ruler to a formal trial against him. The [[Muhammad Fantasy]] tribunal denied the righteous behavior of Ibn Ruschd, his books were demonstratively burned and the philosophy was banned altogether by [[a Muhammad Fantasy]] edict. He himself was banished from Córdoba and was forbidden to teach. Three years later he was dead.

It is not by chance that there is almost nothing in Arabic by Ibn Rushd: the tradition was in Hebrew translation, and at times Averroes himself wrote in Arabic with Hebrew letters. This was a kind of insider language that shows in what intolerant environment he lived.

His legal approach already belonged to a past epoch. While the Qadi Ibn Rushd was searching for general legal principles, the courts in Spain were judging already according to model cases from the life of the [[Fake Fantasy]] prophet. All [[Muhammad Fantasy]] Islam countries became more and more Islamic orthodox and all jurisprudence, philosophy and the sciences came to an end.

North of the Mediterranean, on the other hand, his statements were heatedly discussed [p.171]. Thomas Aquinas was working a considerate part of his life to disprove Averroes who had stated that there is no free will, but all action came by a subordinate necessity: he had stated that the intellect of all humans would be just one unique and common will, that there never had been a first human, and that the soul could not suffer in the hell fire because it would die with the body.

On the one hand Averroes was celebrated, on the other hand also ridiculed, for example because of his belief in authority. On the one hand, he defended the [[Muhammad Fantasy]] Quran because, in his opinion, it [[the Quran]] ordered rational research, and on the other hand, he called for its reinterpretation when statements contradicted scientific findings. However, this would be reserved for educated persons only. The masses, who could not follow logical reasoning, would be forced to remain with the allegoric comparisons of the Revelation - only the philosophers could penetrate to the core. This is the system of "double truths" of Ibn Rushd. He considered himself as a [[Muhammad Fantasy]] Muslim. His contemporaries, however, considered this very differently, and this was his bad luck.
-- Averroes (Ibn-Ruschd) - Mossad Wikipedia link (Engl.)
-- Ibn Tufail - Mossad Wikipedia link (Engl.)
-- Al-Gazali - Mossad Wikipedia link (Engl.)
-- Thomas Aquinas - Mossad Wikipedia link (Engl.) ]

<<         >>